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31 Cards in this Set

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what is nursing research?
Systematic inquiry designed to develop trustworthy evidence about issues important to the nursing profession including
in the "Consumer-Producer Continuum" of nursing research, who is the consumer?
The person who reads research reports to develop new skills, searches for relevant findings that affect practice.
Who is the producer?
The people who actively participate in designing and implementing studies
name 5 activites that a nurse can take part in for research
1. Participate in journal club
2. Solve clinical problems, decide clinical issues based on research
3. Collaborate in developing an idea for a clinical research project
4. Review a proposed research plan for feasibility
5. Participate in data collection
what are the future directions for nursing research?
Increased federal funding was nearly 140 million in 2006

Heightened focus on EBP

Greater emphasis on systematic reviews (rigorous synthesis on a common or strongly related research question.)

Multidisciplinary collaboration

Dissemination of findings

Increased focus on cultural issues; visibility
what have been some of the Sources of Evidence for Nursing Practice?
Tradition and authority

Clinical experiences, trial and error, intuition

Logical reasoning
Inductive and deductive reasoning
what is inductive reasoning?

give an example
developing generalizations from specific observations

ex: seeing one kid get anxioud and assuming that ALL (generally) kids get anxious when seperated.
developing general from specific
what is deductive reasoning? give an example
developing specific predictions from general principles. ex: we know that seperation anxiety occurs in hospitalized kids (in general) so we might predict that a (specific) hospitalized child may get anxious with separation.
developing specific from general
what is deductive reasoning?give an example
developing specific predictions from general principles. ex: we assume that seperation anxiety occurs in all hospitalized children (general) then we might predict for kids in he hospital we work (specific)
re: sources of evidence, what is "Assembled information?"
bench-marking; cost data; quality improvement and risk data
what is "Disciplined research?"
cumulative findings
what is a Paradigm?
General perspective of the real world
what is the "positivist" paradigm?
there is reality that is believed to be true without proof or verification. Findings not influenced by researcher.
what is the "Naturalistic" paradigm?
reality is not a fixed entity but a construction of individuals participating in research. Findings are from the inquirer and participants.
which paradigm is quantative?
positivist
which paradigm is qualitative?
naturalistic
how does positivist work for quantitative?
Use deductive reasoning to generate a prediction.

You focus on Empirical evidence

Control

focus on numerics

Objective

Generalizability
how does naturalistic work for qualitative?
Use inductive reasoning

Knowledge is maximized when
distance between inquirer and participant is minimized

This is a flexible process. Procedures evolve and change according to new discoveries and new needs.
Subjective
whatdo both paradigms have in common?
Ultimate goals

External evidence

Reliance on human cooperation

Ethical constraints

All have some degree of Fallibility - limitations
what is the goal of basic research?
discover general principles of human behavior.
what is the goal of applied research?
find solution to existing problems; tends to be of greater use for EBP
what is the definition of EBP?
The conscientious use of current best evidence in making clinical decisions about patients care (Sackett et al., 2000)
what do we do in "research utilization?"
Start – How can I use this innovation?

Use of findings

Translating empirically derived knowledge into real-world applications

CURN (Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing)
what do we do in EBP?
Start –What does the evidence say is the best approach for solving this problem?

Cochrane Collaboration – effort to make research summaries of research
trials available.
what are some barriers to research utilization?
Quality and nature of the research

Characteristics of the nurse

Organizational factors
what is "diffusion of innovations?"
It happens in stages:
(1) knowledge, awareness of innovation for use in practice;
(2) persuasion – form an opinion;
(3) decision stage – adopt or reject;
(4) implementation – use innovation to change practice;
(5) confirmation – adopt or reject.
what is the Iowa model?
An algorithm to follow for research utilization to address a problem. The process is initiated by a problem or knowledge trigger; identify relevant research literature
what are the indivdual efforts in the steps of EBP?
Clinical question are answerable with research evidence.

Searching for & collecting relevant evidence.

Appraising & synthesizing evidence

Integrating evidence with own clinical experience, patient preferences, local context

Assessing the effectiveness of the decision.
first part of implementing in EBP:
Making the decision for implementation
Transferability
Feasibility
Cost/benefit ratio
Developing Evidence-based Guidelines: adopt in its entirety, adopt only certain recommendations, adopt guidelines by making necessary changes based on organizational needs.
second part of implementing
Implementing and evaluating the innovation

Evaluation plan: outcomes to be met, number of patients to involve in pilot, when and how to collect outcome information (before and after).

Staff training
some consideratins with EBP and a pilot:
Trying guidelines on one or more units or with a group of patients

Evaluating pilot. How was the pilot received? Extent guidelines were followed, implementation problems, how were client outcomes affected? What are the costs?

Evaluation time usually 6 to 12 months