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47 Cards in this Set

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Dinosauria
- "Terrible Lizard"
- Coined by Sir Richard Owen in 1841
Sir Richard Owen
- Coined the term "dinosauria"
- Found 3 fossil reptiles in 1841 for the British Museum of Naturle History.
Gideon Mantell
- English physician who described Iguanodon and Hylaeosaurus in the 1820's-30's.
William Buckland
- English physician who described Megalosaurus in the 1820's-30's.
Leidy
- Creditied with the first American dinosaur discovery - Hadrosaurus (1858).
Marsh
- Worked for the Pebody Museum.
- Was always in competition with Cope.
Cope
- Worked for the Academy of Sciences in Phillidelphia.
- Was always in competition with Marsh.
Como Bluff
- First bones found durring transcontinental railroad construction (late 1800's).
Earl Douglas
- Worked for Carnege
- In 1909 he founded the Dinosaur Natioanl Monument in Eastern Colorado.
Age of the Earth
- 4.6 billion years old.
Dinosaurs become exstinct
- 65 million years ago.
- End of Cretaceous period.
Dinosaurs first appear
- 220-225 million years ago.
- End of Triassic period.
Mesozoic Era
- Cretacious ( began 145 mya)
- Jurassic (began 208 mya)
- Triassic (began 250 mya)
Triassic Period
- First period of Mesozoic Era.
- Began 250 million years ago.
- Dinosaurs first appear at the end of the Triassic period, 220-225 mya.
Jurassic Period
- Second period of the Mesozoic Era.
- Began 208 mya.
Cretaceous Period
- Last period of the Mesozoic Era.
- Began 145 mya.
- Dinosaurs dissapear at the end of the Cretaceous period, 65 mya.
5 Darwin Observations
1. Species over reproduce
2. Struggle/competition for existance (within species)
3. Variation within species
4. Natural selection (survival of the fittest)
5. Variations are hereditary
Vestigial Structures
- 'Left over" strucures (disadvantageous strucures)
Phylogeny
- Evolutionary history.
- How a species relates to others.
- Lifespan represents your phylogeny.
Ontogeny
- Time from embreo to death.
Mutations
- Genetic mistakes.
Pre-adaptations
- Traits/characteristics that later become useful.
Pangean Distribution
- Dinosaurs can be found in many places because of Pangea.
Paleomagnitism
- Magnetic orientation changes over time.
Igneous rock
- Solidifies out of magma.
- Fossils are not found in this rock.
Metamorphic rock
- Transitional/changed rocks
- Some fossils may be found in this rock.
Sedimentary rock
- Created by lithification of sediments (sand, mud, etc.).
- Lots of fossils are found in this rock.
Ashbeds
- Sediments of igneous rocks
- Some fossils are found in this.
Fossil
- Petrified bone.
- Original bone material is is gone and replaced with other organic material.
Trace Fossils
- Imprint of bones/tracks fossilized in stone.
Coprolites
- Trace fossils of dino crap.
Gastrolith
- Stomach rocks.
- Very round and polished.
Absolute (Radiometric) Dating
- Giving an exact age from a measured chemical reaction that happens in a rock (halflife, etc.)
Relative Dating
- Giving an age relative to other absolute dates.
Pterapsids/Pteridaphyles
- Seedless plants (ferns and relatives)
- Oldest, most primitive plants.
- Can be found in Triassic and Jurassic periods.
Gymnosperms
- Plants that have seeds in their cones. (conifers, cycads, pine trees)
- Can be found in Triassic and Jurassic periods.
Angiosperms
- Flowering plants.
- Most successful/efficient in reproducing.
- First appear in Cretaceous period.
Classification System
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Cladogram
- Diagram representing phylogeny.
Anapsida
- Subclass of class reptilia.
- No hole in skull behind the eyes.
Synapsida
- Subclass of class reptilia.
- Upper hole in skull behind the eyes.
Euryapsida
- Subclass of class reptilia.
- Lower hole in skull behind the eyes.
Diapsida
- Subclass of class reptilia.
- Two holes in the skull behind the eyes.
Lepidasauria
- Infraclass of subclass Diapsida.
- Lizards, snakes.
- Two holes in skull, but lower hole has bone missing; not a complete hole.
Archosauria
- Infraclass of subclass Diapsida.
- Thecodontia, Crocodilia, Pterosauria, Saurischia, Ornithischia.
- Two full holes in the skull.
Thecodont Features (Important to dinosaurs)
- Rooted teeth.
- Opening in front of eye and in lower jaw.
- Improved posture.
Dinosaur Features (as separated from advanced Thecodonts)
- Fully upright.
- Changes in ankle, leg, and hip.
- Hole in pelvis.
- Larger ilium (part of pelvis).