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59 Cards in this Set

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The Liver is the __ largest organ in the body other than ____. It is covered with a ___ capsule called: _______
2nd largest
skin
CT-- Glissons capsule
Entering the liver are the:
Hepatic artery and portal vein
Leaving the liver is the:
hepatic duct
Connective--supporting tissue of an organ known as:
Parenchyma
Entire liver parenchyma consist of ________
6 hexagonal shaped hepatic lobules
Portal triad located?
At periphery of each lobule
Portal areas contain ____
CT
Portal areas contain:
arteriole-branch of hepatic artery
venule-branch of portal vein
ductule-branch of bile duct
Hepatic artery receives ____ blood from _____
oxygenated blood from cilia trunk
Portal vein receives blood from the :
superior mesenteric vein and spleenic vein
Spleenic vein carries blood filled with:
destroyed products of erythrocytes and de02 blood from large intestine
Superior and inferior mesenteric veins contain:
nutrient rich blood and toxic products -- bile pigments and drugs
Synthesize bile?
secreted to?
Hepatocytes
gallbladder
Between hepatocytes in lobules:
adjacent plasma membranes. bilary caniliculi (filled with bile)
Hepatocytes contain: ____ junctions and _____
gap junctions and tight junctions
Center of hepatic lobule:
central vein (venule)
Epithelial cells of liver _____ interconnected with adjacent cells in the form of:
- ______ or
-_______
arranged?
hepatocytes,
plates or chords

radially around central vein
In between plates or chords of hepatocytes?
______ present as:_______
covered by?
with ______ in between?
sinusoidal capillaries, present as discontinuous fenestrated sinusoids -- reticular layer

very large space in between- kupher cells/stellate cells or inside lumen
Hepatocytes contain apical _____ toward ______. Functions to? This area is known as ______. ____ cell present
microvilli, toward endothelial cells for increase surface area for exchange of substances btw blood plasma and hepatocyte. Itocell
Itocell contains: _____
____ _____ cells
also store _______
synthesizes ______ (3)
when necessary
small lipid droplets
fat storing cells
vitamin A
ECM -collagen-proteoglycan-glycoproteins
Liver-- 70-80% blood via ________
portal vein
Liver is a _______ organ
modified endocrine/exocrine
Central vein takes and receives blood from the :
containing?
path to RA?
portal vein and hepatic artery which contain both de02 and oxygenated blood
CV-HV-IVC-RA
Flow of blood of hepatocyte lobules from ____ to ____
periphery to center
Peripheral hepatocytes receive blood?
depend on _____ metabolism?
for ______
1st-aerobic-protein synthesis
Central hepatocytes
Oxygen level? Metabolism? Aid in?
low-glycogen- detoxification
Kupher cells also known as ____ cells function to:
1.
2.
3.
stellate
1.destruction of AGED erythrocytes
2. removes cellular debris
3. antigen-presenting cells
Hepatocytes contain ___ nuclei?
well developed ______
-
-
1-2 or more-mitochondria-peroxisomes-lysosomes
RER of liver synthesizes?
large macromolecules including-- Albumin-prothrombins --- directly released to the blood
SER of liver functions?

important for?
detoxification
aged erythrocytes TOXIC H2O INSOLUBLE BILIRUBIN
RER ______ bilirubin
by adding ______ and through the ________ enzyme to create water soluble nontoxic bilirubin ____ ____
conjugates
UDP Glucornic acid
Glucoronyl Transferase
Glucornic acid
Unconjugated billirubin or absence of ________ leads to:
Glucoronyl Transferase
unconjugated Jaundice
Glucornyl transferase deficiency patients given ______ to stimulate _____
barbituates
hepatocytes in SER to produce glucornyl transferase
Liver cells contain abundant _______ near SER
Function?
temporary glycogen
low blood glucose levels--> temp. glycogen to glucose-->blood--> normal blood glucose levels
Triglycerides in hepatocytes function to?
give energy between meals
Hepatocytes conversion of _____ to ______ when necessary
fatty amino acids to glucose
Peroxisomes function in liver
-________
-________ of ______
-synthesis of ____ and ____
degradation of h202
beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids
synthesis of bile acids and cholesterol
Lysosomes main function?
________ of:
intracellular digestion
extra/nonfunctional organelles
Golgi Apparatus function?
_______ like the :
Sorting and packing proteins lysosomal and peroxisomal enzymes
Hepatocytes secretion of _____ containing: (5)
proteins
electrolytes
water
bilirubin-- from aged erythrocytes
cholicacid
Bilary caniculi
NO ______ present
NO LINING PRESENT just adjacent hepatocyte plasma membranes
Bile synthesized by?
secreated via?
Hepatocytes
Bilary caniculi
From bile canilculi to ______ (____ of lobules) to ______ to _____ to ______
bilary ductules -periphery
bile duct
R&L Hepatic duct
gallbladder
Lining of bile ductules and bile duct, hepatic duct: ______
lining called:
simple columnar epithelieum
cholangiocytes
Bile to duodenum to:
amulsify fat
Alcohol detoxification involves:
_______, ______, and ____ in _____
ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase)
MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidation system P450 enzymes in the SER) and catalase in peroxisomes
Bile canaliculus defined as _____
apical
Junctional complexes defined as _____
lateral
Blood surface with the space of Disse and hepatic sinusoids is considered:
basal
Kupffer cells are derived from:
monocytes
Emphasizes the endocrine function of the liver?
classic lobule
Emphasizes the exocrine function of the liver?
Portal lobule
Emphasizes the actual blood supply and regeneration capacity of liver?
Liver acinus
GIT epithelium ______ except fro areas of maximal friction including?
simple columnar
esophagus and anal canal
Stomach glands in the _____ and ____ produce mucus
(_____ and _____ cells)
fundus and body
surface and neck
Parietal cells similar to _____ cells using _____ ____ to produce ___ that are pumped into:______ lined by ____ in:
osteoclast
carbonic anhydrase
protons (H+)
intracellular canaliculi-microvilli in active parietal cells
Inactive parietal cells the proton pumps are: ______ in the ____
sequestered in tubulovesicles in the cytosol
Pancreas has both _____ (____ cells) and _____ (____ cells) components that synthesize _____ _____ and _______ hormones repectively
exocrine-acinar cells
endrocrine-islet cells
pancreatic juice and blood sugar regulating hormones
Exocrine pancreas is primarily stimulated by the hormones _______ and ______ which primary regulate _____ and ____ secretions respectively
cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin
acinar and ductal