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264 Cards in this Set

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Fall of Rome:
Economy- the empire split, stopped expanding, large estates engulfed smaller- no farming, Constantine freezes people to their positions, drastically inflated

Political- morale was low, senate lost all control

Attila and the Huns attack and cannot be stopped, pillage and killed many, Leo persuades Attila to leave

Barbarians attack- Vandals, Germanic tribes

Odoacer overthrows western kingdom

Eastern fades into Byzantine Empire
Three Kingdoms of Egypt:
Old Kingdom- built most of Pyramids, Pharaoh thought to be a god

Middle Kingdom- encourage trade, falls to invaders

New Kingdom- build up military, Sphinx, built great temple
Anthropologist
a person who studies mankind and its aspects, especially culture
Artifacts
items that remain from history that can give us clues into the civilization and their culture
Archaeologists
a person who searches for artifacts and studies mans history
Fossils
a cast of an organism in rock
Carbon 14
a system of dating that uses carbon dating to determine the age of an artifact
Paleolithic Character
a person who lived in the beginning of the Stone Age
Neolithic Character
the time when man went from nomads to farmers
The four early civilizations
China, Yellow River; India, Indus River; Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent; and Egypt, Nile
Theocracy
government by god or priests
Delta
the head of a river, triangular were silt collects
Papyrus
reedy plant that grows on the Nile, used as paper and scrolls
Cataracts
rocky places with swift currents and rapids
Hieroglyphics
the picture writings of the Egyptians
Ideogram
another form of picture writings
Rosetta Stone
a slab that was used to translate hieroglyphics
Champollion
the French philosopher who deciphered the Rosetta Stone
Kin Menes
the king of Upper Egypt who conquered the North and reunited Egypt, first of the Old Kingdom Empires
Pharaoh
the Egyptian king who was initially thought to be a God, had pyramids built to house body
Sakkara
the capitol of the Old Kingdom, and place of some pyramids
Hyksos
a group that ruled Egypt for almost 100 years, were overthrown by Thebes
Osiris
an Egyptian God who was the king and judge of the dead
Queen Hatshepsut
a great leader of Egypt, encouraged trade, the face of the sphinx
Thutmose III
the son of Hatshepsut, mined all that she had accomplished, built Egypt to largest size
Amenhotep IV
changed Egypt to monotheism of the sun god
Ramses II
The great Pharaoh who confronted the Hittites, marries a Hittite princess
Cleopatra
the last of the Pharaohs, was killed by Caesar in her alliance with Marc Antony
Egyptian Firsts
anatomy, performed surgery, hygiene, mummification
Sumerians
the first civilization, polytheists, cuneiform (first system of writing), base 60, arithmetic
Ur
the location in the Fertile Crescent where Sumer was
Ziggurat
a pyramid shaped temple
Cuneiform
the first ever system of writing invented by the Sumerians
Sargon
the Akkadian ruler who conquered Sumer and created the first ever empire
Hammurabi
the ruler who united Mesopotamia under Babylon, had the code, eye for an eye and schools
Babylonians
the people of Babylon who eventually conquered Mesopotamia
Nebuchadnezzar
the most famous Chaldean king, took Jerusalem, rebuilt Babylon, hanging gardens
Cyrus
the leader of the Persians; overthrew the Medes, builds world’s largest empire
Darius
leader of Persia after Cambyses, trains and pays army, Fails to conquer Greece, Used spies, had roads, minted money
Xerxes
tries to conquer Greece and fails, conquered by Alexander the Great
Hominids
pre humans, Lucy, a 4% skeleton, 4 ft, 3.3 million years old
Homoerectus
may have eaten flesh, walked up right, Peking, Java
Homosapien
Neanderthal
Java man
fire and walked
Homosapien Sapien
Cro-Magnon
Assyrians
were fierce warriors, used scare tactics, killing and maiming, built huge library at Nineveh, punished ruthlessly
Hittites
warlike Indo European tribe, settled around Turkey, had three-man chariot
Hebrews
the Jews, Abraham was first, God tells him to go to Canaan and he will be prosperous, Jacobs sons form 12 tribes, they are lead from Egyptian captivity by Moses, Moses is given 10 commandments, split into Judah and Israel, fell to Assyria, taken to Babylon as slaves, Persians allow to return home
Sumerian Accomplishments
cuneiform, math, canals, dykes, walled cities, seal, social order
Phoenicians
a wealthy trading society, at the west end of the fertile crescent sailors, founded Carthage
Minoan
developed on Crete, grew on Aegean Islands, wrote in Linear A, conquered by Mycenaeans
Knossos
the great Minoan city that developed on the island, much about Minoan life discovered here
Trojan War
told in the Iliad and Odyssey by Homer, a war between Greece and Troy between Achilles and Hector, war over Helen who was kidnapped by Paris of Troy and was wife of King Menelaus of Sparta
Dorians
the people that would become the great Spartans
Acropolis
the hill that the Parthenon sat atop
Polis
city-state in Greece
Archons
the chief of state in Athens, lead the Assemble and council of 500
Draco
drafted the much harsher laws that would govern Athens, terrible punishments
Solon
drafted the much fairer laws that would govern Athens, a step toward democracy and allowed all men to help in the government
Cleisthenes
the leader that breaks up Athens into tribes in order to break up power
Sparta vs. Athens
between Peloponnesian League (Sparta and its allies) and Aegean League (Athens and allies) fought out of fear,
Ephors
the Spartan elders and heads of State
Laconic
the way the Spartans talked, tersely, briefly
Herodotus
wrote the historic poem, The Histories, considered the father of History
Homer
writer of the Iliad and the Odyssey and was a great story teller
Pheidippides
ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens to warn against Persians and died
Marathon
the city in Greece that the Persians attacked but the Greeks held
Salamis
the last battle of the Persian wars
Thermopylae
the pass that the 300 Spartans lead by Leonidas held from the Persians for days while Athens was evacuated
Hoplites
the Greek foot soldiers
Phalanx
a tight rectangular formation of soldiers
Pericles
the Athenian politician that lead to rebuilding, pays judges and politicians and builds splendor
Attica
Athens and the surrounding area
Peloponnesian Wars
fought between Athens and Sparta, Sparta envied Athens dominance and decided to attack, finally win when they destroy Athens fleet
Phidias
great Greek sculptor who carved sculptures in the Parthenon
Olympia
the town where the Olympics were started
Olympus
the mountain on which the Greek Gods lived
Tragedies
type of play in Greece, original type of play
Comedy
the second type of play in Greece, had a happy ending, didn’t have to be funny
Sophocles
the great Tragedy author wrote over 123 tragedies
Euripides
wrote tragedies that questioned the Gods
Aeschylus
the father of the tragedy
Aristophanes
the Great comedy author
Sappho
- the famous woman lyrical poet
Pindar
a lyrical poet who wrote to commemorate public events like the Olympics
Parthenon
the great temple to the gods on the Acropolis in Athens
Thales
the Greek city-state that ended Spartans control over Greece
Hippocrates
a Greek physician who wrote the Hippocratic Oath for doctors
Sophists
a group of teachers of Philosophy
Socrates
taught Plato, was charged with poisoning the minds of youth; sentenced to death by hemlock
Plato
Philosopher in golden age- taught Aristotle, recorded all findings, founded the Academy
Aristotle
mainly studied world and nature, used intellect to study art and literature, and politics, taught Alexander the Great
Phillip II
Great Mesopotamian leader who conquered all City states but Sparta
Alexander the Great the
great leader of Mesopotamia who conquered, Central Asia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Persia, built largest empire ever at that point, failed to conquer Indus
Alexandria
the capitol of Egypt named after Alexander, Philosophical Capitol of Hellenistic Greece
Hellenistic
“Greek Like” the world when Alexander spread his influence all over the world
Epicurus
philosopher, poet, greatest good is being happy, happiness is freedom
Stoics
people taught not to show their emotions
Euclid
mathematician; advanced geometrics, made The Elements and published math
Archimedes
scientists/mathematician, calculated pi, made the lever, double pulley, catapult, and screw
Eratosthenes
scientist, astronomer, earth round and revolves around the sun, discovered size of the earth
Cleopatra
had affairs with Marc Antony and Caesar, was killed with Antony and had Egypt taken away from her
Latins
found Rome but lose control to Etruscans
Etruscans
conquered Latins, give Rome Wall and Sewer, Building Techniques, Alphabet and Number System, Introduced Gladiator Games and Chariot Races, Styles of Sculpture and Art
Patricians
the class of the wealthy that ruled Rome
Plebes
the lower class that had no control
Legions
Unit of 2000 soldiers in Roman Army
Tribes
divisions of the people also used as voting groups
12 Tables
a spelling out of the law forced by the Plebeians that was placed in the Forum
Centuries
soldiers that kept lookout over the cities
Punic Wars
the series of three wars between Carthage and Rome
Scipio
the Roman leader who attacked Carthage and forced Hannibal to return
Carthage
an African empire that rivaled Rome
Gracchus Brothers
two grandsons of Scipio who were elected tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius
Hannibal
Carthage general who invade Rome and won battle after battle until Scipio
Marius
recruited soldiers from the poor elected consul six times
Sulla
great military leader, stopped from becoming consul by Marius, gets into a war, wins and becomes dictator but tries to restore Republic and retires
1st Triumvirate
Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus; take control of government, Crassus dies, land is split
Julius Caesar
crossed the Rubicon and fights Pompey for Rome, wins, reforms government, redistributes land, public works, increased soldier pay
2nd Triumvirate
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus; Lepidus dies
Augustus
Octavian after he defeats Antony arid Cleopatra at Actium, “the exalted one”
Pax Romana
period of peace during reign of Augustus
Julio Claudian
the emperors that succeed Augustus, were bad, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
Good Emperors
follow the Julio Claudians, Nerva, Hadrian, Trajan, Antonius, and Aurillius
Flavians
succeeded the good emperors, four in one year- Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespian
Pliny
wrote on natural History died at Vesuvius
Mt. Vesuvius
the great volcano at Pompey that erupted and killed thousands
Virgil
Aeneid- heroics epic of hero Aeneas fleeing Troy with his father on his back
Cicero
essayist- admirer of Rome; set a moral standard for essayist
Livy
wrote the history of Rome “I honestly believe that no country has ever been greater than Rome”
Aeneid
written by Virgil, epic poem told of Aeneas who roamed from Troy to Italy
Christianity
religion started by Jesus of Nazareth who was the son of God, appealed to poor because it offered salvation and eternal life in Heaven
Peter
Jesus’ disciple who continued to preach after his death
Paul
spread the good news of Christianity to gentiles- non-Jews
Diocletian
Strengthened empire with harsh laws, divided empire e/w-took west, price limits, persecuted Christians
Constantine
the leader of the reunified Rome, built capitol in the East, Constantinople, recognized Christianity
Barbarians
the Huns, Vandals, Germanic tribes that are largely responsible for overthrowing Rome
Attila
the great fearsome leader of the Huns who leads the attacks on Rome
Mohenjo-Daro
the great city of paved streets in Indus valley
Harappa
second of great cities in Indus carefully planned out, excelled in trade
Aryans
take over ancient India under Asoka, turns to Buddhism after Bloody battles
Vedas
the sacred writings of the Aryans
Reincarnation
the belief of the Hindu that you are reborn repeatedly in new bodies
Hinduism
religion major in India, no creator of religion, lead to Buddhism
Indus
the river in India that civilization thrived on
Ganges
another river in India that supported a civilization
Brahman
the God of the Hindus
Brahma
the creator out of the trinity in Hindu
Vishnu
the sustainer of the trinity
Shin
the destroyer of the trinity
Castes
the social classes of the Hindu
Brahmins
highest-ranking Caste, priests and teachers, smallest in number
Kshatrias
the warriors and the rulers’ caste
Vaishyas
common people, traders, farmers, herder’s caste
Sudras
servant’s caste
Untouchables
the mostly non-Hindu people and those who did work that Hindu disagreed with
The Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama, meditated on the troubles of the world and became enlightened
Buddhism
Evolved from Hinduism, believed you could reach Nirvana in first life, followed teachings of The Buddha
4 Noble Truths
Life means suffering, suffering is caused by desire, restraining desire can end suffering, knowing this makes you ready for the 8-fold path
Middle Path
the way a Buddhist is to conduct his Life, rightness of views, intent, speech, conduct, means of livelihood, mindfulness, endeavors, meditation
Maurya
Indian dynasty in the fourth-third centuries BCE, unified the subcontinent for the first time, contributed to the spread of Buddhism.
Asoka
the great ruler of ancient India; takes up Buddhism after battles, forms monasteries
Guptas
Indian dynasty; lead by Chandra Gupta, who built Mohenjo-Daro
Yellow River
the river in China that supported the Chinese civilization
Shang Dynasty
preceded the Zhao dynasty, used oracle bones, the first dynasty
Pan Ku
Chinese creator; giant
Mandate of Heaven
what the rulers used to stay in power, they said the Gods would not let an unjust ruler remain
Chou
or Zhao, overthrow the Shang
Chin
or Qin, unite China, 10,000 terracotta soldiers, shunned Confucians, and built small walls united to form Great Wall, built roads
Confucius
the man whose teachings lead to Confucianism, duties to family and friends, wrote the Analects, said by nature people are kind
Taoism
founded by Lao Tzu, adapt don’t struggle, three treasures- love, moderation, contentment, people are corrupted by society
Legalism
by nature people are bad, people need strong government to lead
Han
rules under mandate of heaven, uses Confucianism to cloak legalist morals, Lu rules through husband and gets whole family killed
Shintoism
“the way of the gods” prayers in gardens, god is good man is good therefore man is god, priests have other jobs
Justinian
the leader of Constantinople who tried to reunite Rome but failed, had great general Crassus
Byzantine Empire
the empire built on Constantinople and the ruins of the old Roman Empire
Russian Orthodox
the branch of Christianity founded in Kiev, Russia
Kiev
the capitol of Russia and center
Slavs
the people of Russia, hired three Russian brothers to come and rule
Dnieper
the river in Russia
Vladimir
Russian Grand Duke, converted to Christianity
Ivan III
freed Russia from Mongol rule
Ivan IV or the Terrible
first Russian to take the title of Tzar; killed son, insane
Judaism
Friday is Sabbath, founded by Abraham, Yom Kippur is holiest day
Jewish Terms
Orthodox, Reformed, Conservative; synagogue, temple, menorah, shema
Islam
founded my Mohammed, holy book is Koran, Mecca is holy city, worships Allah
Mohammed
founder of Islam, prophet of Allah, grew up as camel merchant
Mecca
holy city, one of the 5 pillars
Shiites
only Mohammed’s descendants can be religious leaders
Sunnis
anybody that is qualified can be leader
Medina
holy city, where Muhammad is buried, where Muhammad fled to- Hijra
Great Mosque
In Jerusalem, contains the Kaaba
Kaaba
contains the black rock, turned black when Adam and Eve sinned
5 pillars
Alms, Hajj, Creed, 5 prayers a day, Ramadan
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem, Covers the boulder that Muhammad ascended from
Omar Khayyam
wrote the quatrain poems- Rubaiyat
Czar (Tsar)
Dictator of Russia
Cyril
worked with Methodius; created Cryillic alphabet- Slavonic written language
Methodius
converted many slavs/Moravians to christianity
Moscow
Russian capital
Allah
Islamic God
Bedouin
desert-dwelling Muslim nomads
Koran
Islamic Holy book
Franks
Germanic tribe, many converted to Christianity, led by Clovis and later, Charlemagne
Clovis
King of the Franks, converted to Christianity
Charles mantel
Charlemagne’s grandfather; won many battles against Muslims
Charlemagne
led the Franks; crowned emperor of the new Roman Empire
Treaty of Verdun
treaty that divided Charlemagne’s empire among his grandsons after his death
Vikings
Scandinavian sailors; extremely feared for their sporadic raids
Valkries
Norse (Viking) legendary creature; decides who will win a battle
Feudalism
social system where vassals got land from their lords in return for military service
Bourgeoisie
Upper level of the new middle class; consisted of artisans and tradesmen
Fief
land granted by lord
Primogeniture
eldest son inherits the goods
Chivalry
the code of conduct for knights
Hierarchy
a system of social rankings
Knighting
knights swore an oath of loyalty to their lords
Castles
fortresses where royalty or nobles lived.
Castle defenses
round shape, moats, drawbridge, catapult
Castle offenses
Catapults, oil, bow/arrow
Manorialism
social system much like feudalism, but was based around large estates called manors
3 field system
3 fields were maintained: 2 used, 1 left idle; the beginning of crop rotation
Church
at many times the church was the government; churches were places of worship
St. Benedict
Italian saint, formed the Benedictine Rule- strict guidelines for religious dedication
Franciscans
monks that followed the Rule of St. Francis
Dominicans
followers of a religious order founded by St. Dominic
Abbey of Cluny
Abbey where monks originally returned to following Benedictine Rule
Salvation
saving of your sole after death, basically going to heaven
7 sacraments
Baptism, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Marriage, Holy Orders, and Last Rights
Excommunication/interdiction
rejection from the church; takes away your salvation; used as punishment
Hanseatic League
traders that serviced the Germanic cities
Craft/merchant Guilds
much like unions, it was a group of artisans that trained apprentices and sold their goods
Romanesque
Roman architecture; domes, arches
Gothic
architecture style; flying buttress arches, much taller buildings
Dante
wrote The Divine Comedy
Aquinas
Scholar; thought people could learn through experimenting; Scholasticism
Roger Bacon
Summa Theologica: faith and reason come from god
Crusades (I,III,IV)
A series of wars carried out by European Christians to take the Holy Land

I- took Jerusalem in 1099, killed Jews, Muslims, Christians alike

III- Richard the Lionhearted fought Saladin, Saladin is victorious

IV- Crusaders attacked a Christian port so they were all excommunicated; they decided not to attack Jerusalem, but instead raided and took over Constantinople
Pope Urban II
called upon Christians to fight first Crusade
Saladin
Muslim sultan; fought to drive Christians from the Holy Land
Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror took the throne by force, then turned England over to the feudal system
William the Conqueror
King of England that brought Feudalism to England; was also a powerful French noble
Magna Carta
Made it so that the King didn’t have all the power; introduced parliament, and stated that the king wasn’t above the law.
King John
tried taxing the nobles who rebelled and created the Magna Carta
King Henry II
great grandson of William the Conqueror, married Eleanor of Aquitaine
Runnymede
a meadow next to the River Thames, notable for being the location of the sealing of the Magna Carta
Model parliament
the parliament under Edward I; included nobles, clergy members, and representatives from every town in England
Capetian Kings
French noble family that rose to power and conquered almost all of modern France
Lay investiture
When bishops were appointed by the government
Simony
the buying and selling of church offices
Concordat of Worms
an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, removed the Emperor’s divine authority to appoint church officials
Pope Gregory VII
asserted the churches power to appoint bishops; excommunicated Henry IV because he wished these powers for himself
Pope Gregory the Great
restored monastic discipline
Black Death
a plague spread by rats and fleas that wiped out 1/3-1/2 of Asia and Europe
Arts
gothic architecture, illumination, tapestry, epics, romances, and fables
Science
alchemy, experimentational research
Scholasticism
Christian teachings were also knowable and provable through the use of logic and reason
Vernacular
a language from a particular region
Early Universities
Bologna, Oxford, and Paris
Italy
controlled most trade, among the first European areas to build thriving trade economies
Germany
Hanseatic league controlled most trade between Europe, Russia, and the Baltic regions
Banquet terms
Jester, Troubadour-sang, panter-protected lord’s bread, steward, carver-cut the food, ewer-jug of washing water
Canterbury
Taken over by William the Conqueror, Contains part of the Roman Wall
Richard the lionhearted
King of England that thought Saladin during the third crusade