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31 Cards in this Set

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The following are?
Inluenza H1N1
Measles Virus
B. pertusis
E. coli 0157:H7
Re Emerging Pathogens
-ie, used to be under control

Which are more likely to be Re-Emerging
--less host assistance required, more easily adaptable to host.
What are 2 Emerging Pathogens
Chikungunya Virus
Granulobacter bethesdensis in CGD

When did these guys 1st appear/re-appear?
Chikungunya first in 1960s, back in 2004

G. bethesdensis first in 2006
Name some more examples of Re-Emergin Pathogens
Enterovirus 71
Mumps virus
C. diff
Group A Strep
Staph A
Where do the ReEm Paths come from (3 MOA)
Develop Resistance: ie, XDR-TB
Decline in Vac Rates: pertusis, measles
Re-assortment from another species--invade new host pops
What was E. Colis 0157:H7s original host?
Cattle, jumped to peeps in 1982
Describe Str of Influenza A
nucleic acid?
H Ag?
N Ag
8 strands of (-) sense ssRNA
--HA has 16 subtypes
===major surface glycoprotein spike. Viral Entry--binds sialic acid
-Neuraminidase has 9 subtypes
-2nd surface glycoportein spike. Virion release
What results in an altered Serotype of a specific strain?
Antigenic DRIFT
-selection pressure created by Abs.
-Drift occurs mostly in mammalian hosts
Antigenic Shift?
Wholesale changes in gene segments
-Infecton of a host with 2 SEPARATE influenza strains to construct a new virus

What specieas are good vessels for SHIFT
Ducks and Pigs
What was age group most affected by H1N1
5-24 years

-Still, either the elderly or the very young are the ones who typically died due to it
What Path meets criteria for eradication--humans are ONLY resevoir
With vaccine?
Measles Virus (M of MMR vac)
What are criteria for eradication in general?
humans are critical for transmission
-sensitive and speific diagnostic tools exist
-effective intervention is available
MEasles today
9 countries have no indiginous measles in last 5 years
-Still high death rates in countries with Low vac rates---sub-saharan africa
What other Virus was added to list of Re Emergin Paths in US
What are Sx of Measles Virus?
Sx: Prodromal Fever, cough ,coryza, conjunctivitis. Maculopapular Rash
--deaths due to increased susceptibility to 2nd Path Dz--MV-Induced Immunosuppresion
--don't wory about these above/below
--Respirartory Droplet Transmission
Which has periodic epidemics or outbreaks every 3 to 5 years. in 2009 17K reported in US
Pertussis/ Whooping Cough
--Institutional Outbreaks Common--schools--hospitals

Where was recent outbreak with 8K cases of pertussis?
2010 in California
-10 infant deaths
the most cases reported in 63 years
What was the last really big E Coli outbreak?
Spinach in 2006
-26 states, 3 confirmed deaths, infection in many
Where was first EHEC outbreak
1982 in Jack in the Box
What ReEmergin Bug has had outbreaks in 2010 in:
Alfalfa sprouts, Shell Eggs, Frozen Entres, Fruit Pulp, Frozen Rodent Feed, Red and Black Peper, water Frogs*

Note: in Fuit Pulp and Frogs, it was Typhi species of Salmonella

What was source of Large Salmonella outbreak in 08/09
Peanut Butter
caused 9 deaths of 600+ infected
Which bug family has shown a Large Increase in Foodborne illnes in last 10 or so years?
--most others show decrease in USA foodborne infections
Which Emerging Path was slient for 30 years after first being identified in Tanzanie in 1953?
Chikungunya Virus

When did it break out? Where?
Oubreak in Indian Ocean Countries in late 2004
How is Chik transmittied? What is it similar to
Chik is mosquito (aedes sp) born
--Similar to West Nile, but Sx are different

What is nucleic acid of Chikungunya?
(+) ssRNA genome
Alphavirus, Togaviridae family
What is one Sx of Chik that makes it similar to dengue
Name means "that which bends up": stooped posture
Sx of chik?
101-104 F, headached, N&V
Myalgia, rash arthralgia
--Painful inflammatio of joints
rareely fatal but painful Sx last a whle
NO Tx NO Vac--in development
What was the brand new Path in 2006?
Granulobacter bethesdensis
-so Far ONLY seen in CGD
-Chronic Granulomatous Dz--genetic Dz, NADPH defect
What are CGD patients especially susceptable to ?
Catalase (+) pathogens
--bugs with oxidative bursts
--Commonly get S. aureus, Nocardia, Aspergillus, Burkholderia
What is Family of G. bethesdensis?
Use of Family in industry?
Acetobacteriaceae --dont usually infect humans
-Gram Neg
Convert ETOH to Acetic Acid--wine to vinegar
Where is G. bethesdensis foun
Commonly in soil and assc w/ plants
In Summary, what are the Re-Emerging Pathogens?
Influenza--H5N1 avian flu
-E. Coli (EHEC)--spinach
Salmonella: Peanut Butter
In Summary, what are the emerging paths?
Chikungunya virus
Granulobacter bethesdensis in CGD patients
No Need to Memorize, but name some New Viral Paths in past 25 years?
Australian bat lyssavirus
Hep C and E (due to more sensitive tests)
Human Herpesvirus 6&8
Parvovirus B19
No Need to Memorize, but name some New Bacterial Paths in past 25 years?
H. pylori
Borrelia burgdorferi

No Need to Memorize, but name some New Prots/Parasistes Paths in past 25 years?
Babesia, atypical
What bug is termed the Potentially New West Nile Virus
Aedes mosquito transmit
NO vac NO Tx
-Vac on way
Sx like Dengue + joint pain