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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 3 things are secreted from the salivary glands?
salt and water (for moistening), mucus (for lubrication), and amylase (for digesting proteins)
Where does digestion not happen?
esophagus and pharynx
What is secreted in the esophagus?
What is secreted in the stomach?
HCl, pepsin, and mucus
What 3 things does HCl do in the stomach?
break down food, kill microbes, activate pepsin from pepsinogen
What is secreted in the pancreas?
enzymes and bicarb
What is secreted from the liver?
bile salts (solubilize fats), bicarb, organic waste pdts and trace metals (which are eliminated via feces)
What is secreted in the small intestines?
enzymes, salt and water (to maintain luminal fluidity), and mucus
What is secreted in the large intestine?
What are 5 things are in chyme?
proteins, polysacs, salt, water, and fat droplets
Bile is made from what 6 things?
bile pigments, bile salts, cholesterol, bicarb, phospholipids, and organic wastes
What are 3 functions of the small intestines concerning motility?
1-mixing luminal contents w/secretions.
2-bring contents into contact w/wall for absorption.
3-advances chyme toward large intestines.
What is secreted in everything except the liver and pancreas?
What are the 4 major processes of the GI tract?
How much fluid is lost and how?
4 liters a day via respiratory and kidney functions.
100 mL is lost via feces.
Name the innermost layer in the GI tract and give sublayers and functions
epithelium (tight junctions)
lamina propria (contains blood vessels, lacteal terminals, and nerve fibers)
muscularis mucosa (smooth muscle)
Name the second innermost layer in the Gi tract and give sublayers and functions
Submucosal nerve plexus (secretory activity)
Major blood and lymph vessels.
Name the second outermost layer in the GI tract and give sublayers and functions
Muscularis Externa:
Circular muscle
Myenteric nerve plexus (smooth muscle activity)
Longitudinal muscle
Name the outermost layer in the GI tract and give the function.
Serosa (connective tissue that supports the GI tract in the abdominal cavity)
Name the path for short reflexes.
Name the path for long reflexes.
How does the small intestine have immune properties?
Peyers patches are like tiny lymph nodes. Those and immune cells secrete antiinflammatory mediators which alter motility.
What are autoimmune disorders concerning GI tract?
Crohn's Syndrome, IBS, Colitis
What are the disacs and what are they made of?
Sucrose: glucose + fructose (SF)
Lactose: glucose + galactose
Maltose: glucose + glucose
How do we digest fiber??
It cannot be broken down in SI so it goes to the LI where it is broken down by bacteria.
How is amylase inactivated?
By coming into contact w/HCl
How are fructose, glucose, and galactose transported across the luminal membrane?
F: facilitated diffusion
G and G: Cotransport w/Na
Epithelial disintergration results in...
enzymes and mucus
Trypsin and Chromotrypsin and carboxypeptidases come from...
the pancreas
Aminopeptidases come from...
the luminal membrane
Amino acids enter intestinal cells by ... (2)
cotransport with Na and multiple transporters
Short chain aa's enter intestinal cells by ...
cotransport with Hydrogen
Amino acids are transported on the blood side by ...
facilitated diffusion
If intact proteins need to get into a cell, it does so by...
endo and exocytosis
What splits a fatty acid into a monoglyceride and 2 free fatty acids?
pancreatic lipase
What is emulsifying and what are two agents?
disrupting fat droplets into 1 micrometer droplets. Agents are phospholipids and bile salts (which are formed from cholesterol in the liver).
What is colipase?
an amphipathic molecule that lodges on the lipid droplet surface to bind the lipase cuz it's hard for it to find a spot w/the agents on it.
What is a micelle?
emulsion like droplets 4-7 nanometers that aid in the absorption of lipids.
What are chylomnicrons?
resynthesized triglycerides in epithelial cells.
Explain how fats are absorbed.
First, they're broken down into emulsion droplets by emulsion agents. then those same things are going to break them down into micelles. Then pancreatic lipase breaks into 2 free FAs and a monoglyceride. Those both can go through luminal membrane and they get remade into chylomnicrons (in the ER) then goes into a lacteal.
How are water soluable vitamins absorbed? and what is an exception?
by diffusion or mediated transport, except for B12 which binds to an intrinsic factor and is absorbed in the ileum via endocytosis.
How is water absorbed?
it follows net solute movement (Na) through epithelial junctions and protein channels
What are two minerals absorbed with Na?
Cl and bicarb
How does Ca get absorbed?
Vit D
What is Iron bound to in the blood and in the cell?
blood: transferrin
cell: ferritin
What is hematocrosis?
lots in iron ingested leading to iron deposits in tissues producing skin pigmentatino and diabetes mellitis
Name everything about gastrin.
In stomach by G cells.
Activated by aa's, peptides, PNS
Results in acid secretion, increased gastic and ileal motility, increased LI motility
Targets parietal and ECL cells
Name everything about CCK.
In SI by I cells.
Activated by aa's and fat.
Results in enzyme secretion, gall bladder contraction, relaxation of Oddi, inhibits stomach, helps Secretin secrete bicarb, and inhibits gastric emptying.
Targets pancreatic acinar and gall bladder.
Name everything about Secretin.
In SI by S cells.
Activated by acid.
Results in inhibiting stomach, secretes bicarb from liver and pancreas.
Targets pancreatic ductal cells.
Name everything about motilin.
Its a hormone the regulates the MMC (which is peristaltic movement in SI). Inhibited by feeding.
Name everything about histamine.
In stomach by ECL cells.
Activated by gastrin and Ach.
Results in secretion of gastric and HCl.
name everything about Somatostatin.
In stomach by D cells.
Activated by low pH.
Results in inhibiting secretion of gastrin and histamine.
Name everything about GIP.
In SI.
Activated by glucose and fat.
Results in stimulation of insulin release.
What are the 4 stimulii for the GI tract?
distension, chyme osmolarity, chyme acidity, and chyme concentration on certain products.
Explain the 3 phases of GI control.
Cephalic - Receptors in the head and stimulated. Parasympathetic fibers in the VAGUS activate plexuses to affect secretory and contractile activity.
Gastric phase - responds to when food is in stomach. Mediated by short and long reflexes and by release of gastrin.
Intestinal phase - Responds to 4 stimuli and mediated by long and short reflexes and by secretion of secretin, cck, and gip.
What does the mouth do?
chew, add saliva, and begin swallowing.
Name everything about saliva.
stimulate by PNS and SNS, no hormonal regulation, induced by cephalic phase, can be conditioned, initiated by chemo and baroreceptors, increased blood flow increase saliva.
What is Sjrogen's syndrome?
immune disorder where salivary and lacrimal glands don't work.
Upper esophogeal sphincter and lower esophogeal sphincter are ......
skeletal and smooth muscle (respectively)
What blocks nasal passage and respiratory passage?
soft palate and eppiglotis.
Describe the waves in the esophagus.
Primary and Secondary
Where is the swallowing center?
in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem
What happens during pregnancy?
acid reflux caused by pushing up of the LES into the diaphragm.
What is heartburn from?
acid reflux due to faulty LES.
What are the two main sectinos of the stomach and what do they secrete?
Fundus - top
Body - mdidle, mucus, pepsinogen, and HCl
Antrum - bottom, mucus, pepsinogen, and gastrin.
what do chief cells and parietal cells secrete?
Where are they?
pepsinogen and acid & intrinsic cofactor.
In the antrum.
What are in the tubular glands?
ECL for paracrine histamine and other cells for somatostatin
How does H get secreted? and how are they regulated?
by H/K ATPase pumps in parietal cells.
Regulated by (+)gastrin, (+)Ach, (+)histamine, and (-)somatostatin.
What does histamine potentiate?
Ach and gastrin
How do acid and somatostatin relate?
acid promotes somatostatin which inhibits further acid release.
What is the cleaving of pepsinogen catalyzed by?
low pH and other pepsin
Pepsinogen secretion parallels _______.
Acid secretion
Pepsin accounts for ____ of protein digestion but is ______.
20%, not essential
What is receptive relaxation?
When the stomach anticipates food (from PNS and swallowing center) and increases in size from 50mL to 1.5L due to serotonin and NO.
What does protein do in the stomach?
buffer acids which increase gastrin and histamine release.
What is the basic electrical rhythm?
slow waves of 3 per minute generated by pacemaker cells in long smooth muscle.
What things increase and inhibit the force of contraction in the antrum?
increase: gastrin, distension.
inhibit: duodenal conditions.
Where are enzymes and bicarb ions secreted from in the pancreas?
enzymes come from gland cells at the pancreatic end of the duct system.
bicarbs come from the epithelial lining in the ducts.
What are 8 pancreatic enzymes?
trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxypeptidase, lipase, amylase, ribonuclease, and deoxyribonuclease.
What two are NOT zymogens?
amylase and lipase
What are the 6 things in bile? What do they do?
bile salts, lecithin (made in liver to solubilize fats)
bicarb (neutralize)
cholestrol, bile pigments (bilirubin), trace metals (to be excreted)
What is the enterohepatic circulation.
They are recycled but like 5% is lost via feces so it's remade in the liver. They are taken back up from the blood by secondary active transport.
How much fluid is secreted by the SI each day? And what do they consist of?
1500 mL, mucus, fluid (following Cl), and water (due to hypertonic chyme).
What is the absorption in the SI due to?
the transport of Na
What happens to all of the fluid secreted by the SI?
Almost all of it is absorbed back into the blood.
What is the rate of segmentation in the SI?
12/min in the duodenum and 9/min in the ileum.
What is the migrating myoelectric complex?
Peristaltic movements in the SI after absorption to move it to the LI. Initiated by motilin. Inhibited by feeding.
What is a gastroileal reflex?
ileal segmentation increasing intensity during gastric emptying.
What is intestino-intestinal reflex?
the cessation of intestinal motility.
What are the 4 parts of the large intestine?
Cecum, colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum.
What are the 3 parts of a colon?
ascending, transverse, and descending.
How to you contract and relax the iliocecal sphincter?
Relaxes when ileum contracts (gastroileal reflex). Contracts when cecum has distension.
How much chyme enters large intesting a day?
1500 mL
What 5 things make up flatus?
nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen sulfide.
Describe segmentation in the large intestine.
every 30 minutes by contracting circular muscle.
What is borborygmus?
The tummy rumble
Describe the defecation reflex.
1. distension of rectum
2. rectum contracts
3. internal anal sphincter relaxes
4. peristaltic activity increases in sigmoid colon
What are 3 natural sources of protection from ulcers?
alkaline mucus, tight junctions, and rapid epithelial replacement
What is the bacterium that causes ulcers?
Helicobacter pylori
What are gallstones?
crystallized cholesterol or precipitated bile pigments.
What are 2 thing caused by gallstones lodged in the common bile duct?
Steatorrhea and Jaundice
What is Lithotrypsy?
A newer technique to dissolve gallstones or shatter them.
What methods and drugs are used for acid inhibition?
histamine blockers - tagamet, ranitidine (zantac).
PPI - prilosec, lansoprazole (prevacid), esomeprazole (nexium)
What is lactose intolerance?
It is when a person lacks lactase and so the lactose gets metabolized by bacteria in the large intesting to short chain fa's and cause fluid movement into lumen.
How do Cholera and Traveler's Diarrhea cause diarrhea?
keeping Cl channels open. results in metabolic acidosis and dehydration.
What is the Area postrema?
area in the brain outside the blood brain barrier and is sensitive to toxins so when exposed, it causes vomiting.
What can vomiting lead to?
alkalosis, dehydration, and upset salt balance, and decreased plasma volume.