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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
segments of small intestine (3)


luminal surface of small intestine is increased by (3)
plicae circulares (valves of Kerckring)


microvilli are composed of _____ which is connected by _____ and ____

fibrin, villin
Major cell types in the small intestinal epithelium (6)
absorptive cells (enterocytes)

goblet cells

enteroendocrine cells

Paneth cells

stem cells

M (microfold) cells
Absorptive cells (enterocytes):

*secretions (2)
*molecules absorbed (3)
*epithelium: simple, tall columnar with microvilli

*secretions: disaccharidases and peptidases

*molecules absorbed: monosaccharides, amino acids and lipids
goblet cells secrete
glycoproteins of the mucin type
enteroendocrine cells

*secretions (7)
*secretions: gastrin, CCK, secretin, VIP, GIP, motilin and somatostatin

*location: base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn
Paneth cells:

*secretion: lysozyme

*location: base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn
stem cells:

*frequency of crypt and Paneth cell repopulation
*repopulate crypts every 3-6 days and Paneth cells every 30 days

*location: base of the crypts of Lieberkuhn
M (microfold) cells

*location within small intestine
*associted with
*description of basement membrane
*found only in the ileum

*cover Peyer's patches

*have a discontinous basement membrane

*function: M cells take up antigens and present them to submucosal lymphocytes
Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT)

*% of intestinal mucosa
*location: lamina propria of the small intestine

*comrpises 25% of intestinal mucosa

*composed of:
- Peyer's patches = groupd
of 20-40 lymphatic
nodules covered by M
- IgA
- SC (secretory component)
IgA is synthesized by
plasma cells
secretory component (SC) is synthesized by
absorptive cells
IgA and SC bind to form
sIgA (plays a major role in host defense)
Brunner's glands are located in the ______ of the ______

Brunner's glands secrete
an alkaline mucous
Defining features of the duodenum (3)
Brunner's glands in the submucosa

Villi are squared off (resemble thick cactus leaves)

Adventitia (retroperitoneal organ)
Defining features of the jejunum (4)
highly developed plicae circularis

long, finger-like villi

more goblet cells than duodenum

Defining features of the ileum (3)
longest villi

highest number of goblet cells

Peyer's patches (lymphatic nodules)

*plicae _____
*Goblet cells (size and number)
*Muscularis externa
*Adventitia vs. serosa
*plicae semilunares (temporary)
*Villi? No
*Crypts? Yes
*Epithelium: simple columnar
*Goblet cells (size and number): large and numerous
*Muscularis externa: outer longitudinal layer is divided into 3 bands = taenia coli
*Adventitia - ascending and descending colon and cecum
serosa - transverse and sigmoid colon
Vermiform appendix:

*Crypts? (size and number)
*Lymphatic nodules?
*Submucosa is ________
*Taenia coli?
*Adventitia or serosa?
*Crypts? (size and number): shorter and fewer than colon
*Lymphatic nodules? Yes
*Submucosa is edematous
*Taenia coli? No
*Adventitia or serosa? Serosa
Rectum is divided into (2)
upper rectum

anal canal
Upper rectum:

*Lymphoid tissue?
*Taenia coli?
*epithelium: simple columnar
*Lymphoid tissue? Yes (less than colon)
*Taenia coli? No
Anal canal:

*Muscularis mucosae?
*epithelium: stratified squamous
*crypts? No
*muscularis mucosae? No
Internal vs. external anal sphincter

internal anal sphincter: smooth muscle (involuntary)

external anal sphincter: skeletal muscle (voluntary)