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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 principal layers of the digestive tract

submucosa (dense, irregular CT)

muscularis externa

adventitia (fixed to abdominal wall) or serosa (surrounded by mesothelium)
3 divisions of the mucosa
lining epithelium

lamina propria (loose CT)

muscularis mucosae
lamina propria contains (5)
blood vessels

lymphatic vessels

lymphatic tissue

plasma cells

muscularis mucosae contains
a single thin layer of smooth muscle
submucosa contains (4)
blood vessels

lymphatic vessels

glands (esophagus and duodenum only)

Meissner's (submucosal) plexus
muscularis externa contains (2)
two thick layers of smooth muscle:
- inner circular layer
- outer longitudinal layer

Auerbach's (myenteric) plexus
- situated between circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers
adventitia is defined by
digestive tract being fixed directly to the abdominal or pelvic wall
serosa is defined by
presence of mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium)
adventitia or serosa contains (4)
connective tissue

blood vessels

lymphatic vessels

muscle type found in tongue
bundles of skeletal muscle (run in all three planes)
types of lingual papillae (4)
filiform papillae

fungiform papillae

foliate papillae

circumvallate papillae
Filiform papillae:

*taste buds?
taste buds?: no

stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
Fungiform papillae:

*taste buds?
taste budgs?: yes (dorsal surface)

stratified squamous epithelium
Foliate & Circumvallate papillae:

*taste buds?
taste buds?: yes (lateral surface)

stratified squamous epithelium
components of mucosa of esophagus (4)
stratified squamous epithelium

lamina propria

muscularis mucosae

esophageal cardiac glands (secrete mucous, more prominent near stomach)
components of submucosa of esophagus (2)

esophageal glands proper (secrete mucous)

*esophagus is one of two sections of the GI tract which contains glands in its submucosa*
components of muscularis externa of esophagus:

*upper 1/3
*middle 1/3
*lower 1/3
upper 1/3: skeletal muscle
middle 1/3: skeletal & smooth muscle
lower 1/3: smooth muscle
location of adventitia and serosa of esophagus
adventitia - above diaphragm

serosa - below diaphragm
composition of upper esophageal sphincter (UES)
skeletal muscle
composition of lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
smooth muscle
Anatomical regions of the stomach (4)
cardia (where esophagus meets the stomach)

fundus (section above invisible line drawn from cardia to body of stomach)


Histological regions of the stomach (3)

fundus/body (histologically identical)

rugae are
temporary longitudinal folds of the mucosa and submucosa of the stomach (disappear when the stomach is full)
composition of mucosa of the stomach (5)
simple columnar epithelium with surface mucous cells

gastric pits

mucosal glands

lamina propria

muscularis mucosae
function of gastric pits
serve as ducts for mucosal glands
types of mucosal glands (3)


parts of a mucosal gland (3)


Cardiac glands:

*physical features (pits and glands)
*physical features: short pits and short, coiled glands
*secrete: mucuous (major), lysozyme (minor), HCl (minor)
Fundic/Gastric glands:

*physical features (pits and glands)
*physical features: medium pits and long, straight glands
*secrete: mucuous (mucous neck cells), HCl (parietal cells), pepsinogen (chief cells)
4 cells types found in fundic/gastric glands
mucous neck cells

parietal (oxyntic) cells

chief cells

enteroendocrine cells
Pyloric glands:

*physical features (pits and glands)
*physical features: very long pits and short, slightly coiled glands
*secrete: mucous (major), HCl (minor)
3 cell types found within pyloric glands
mucous cells

parietal (oxyntic) cells

enteroendocrine cells
composition of the muscularis externa of the stomach
oblique layer of smooth muscle

inncer circular layer of smooth muscle

outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
surface mucous cells secrete
neutral mucous
mucous neck cells secrete
acidic mucous
parietal (oxyntic) cells secrete (2)

intrinsic factor
chief cells synthesize (2)

gastric lipase
enteroendocrine cells produce (3)