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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Type of blood vessels that lie between hepatocytes
Sinusoids
Liver cells that break down aged red blood cells
Kupfer cells
Artery of which the hepatic artery is a branch
Coeliac artery
Part of alimentary tract in contact with the diaphragm
Fundus of stomach
Site of portal-systemic venous anastomoses
Lower part of esophagus
Part of large bowel suspended from the posterior ab wall by mesentery
Transverse colon
What causes salivary secretion from the submandibulary salivary gland
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibres of the 7th cranial nerve (facial)
The bladder is stimulated to contract by...
...postganglionic parasympathetic fibres
Lips innervation
Trigeminal
Muscles of mastication
(act around temporo-madibular joint)
Temporalis and masseter
Trigeminal nerve innervates
Tongue innervation
Muscles - hypoglossal
Ant. 2/3rds of tongue (closest to lips!) - Trigeminal (general sensation - like lips) and facial (taste)
Post. 1/3 of tongue, glossopharyngeal nerve (both sensory and taste)
GI tract blood supply
Coeliac - foregut - to entrance of bile/panceatic duct. - prox half of duodenum
Superior mesenteric - midgut - to splenic flexure
Inferior mesenteric - hindgut - to rectum
Paired or unpaired vessels
Unpaired midline arteries to alimentary tract and it's derivatives (stomach, liver, pancreas and spleen)
Paired lateral arteries to intermediate mesoderm derivatives (Kidneys, adrenal, gonads)
Paired arteries to ab wall too
Muscles of mastication
Temporalis and masseter (mass-eater lol!!)
Innervated by trigeminal (chewing, lips and tongue sensation)
Parotid gland
Major saliva secreter!
In cheek
Controlled by parasympathetic (otic ganglion - glossopharyngeal)
Other salivary glands
Sub mandib and sublingual
Adjacent to tongue
Facial nerve - submandib ganglion
Pharynx
Naso, oro and laryngo-pharynx part.
Naso pharynx sealed from oro during swallowing by soft palate elevation
Muscular tube formed by 3 constrictor muscles (sup mid and inf)
Undergoes peristaltic contraction in response to stim of receptors in oropharynx
Larynx
Formed by cartilages and membranes that protesct airway and vocal cords.
Epiglottis,- leaf like cartilage covers opening of larynx during swallowng.
Swallowing
Tip of tongue moved against hard palate (top of mouth) and post part of tongue depressed so bolus to oropharynx.
Sensory receptors on post part of tongue (glosso innervated) initiate swallowing reflex.
Epiglottis moves to cover larynx
Soft palate moves up to block junct between oro and nasopharynx
epiglottis reopens to allow
breathing
Vocal cords
Lie within larynx - [pair of vibratinng membranes - responsible for vocalisation.
Blood supply to pancreas
Coeliac and superior mesenteric
Musculature of oesophagus
1st third - striated
next = mix of smooth and striated
next all smooth.
Oesophagus blood supply
segmental arches of Aorta
venous - azygous vein
Ab oesophagus sphincter
left crus of diaphragm
prevents food/acid reflux
Stomach position in abdomen
Anterior to everything basically!
Directly below diaphragm.
Ant to spleen and pancreas body.
Duodenum
Descending, horizontal and ascending limb
Passes below peritoneum
Small intestine
Jejenum and ileum
Sphincter at end of small bowel?
Ileo-caecal sphincter.
Regions of Adomen
Hypochondriac and epigastric
Lumbar and umbilical
Iliac and hypogastric
Blood supply to kidney and adrenal
Suprarenal to adrenal
renal to renal :P
Where oesophagus pass through diaphragm?
Muscular part at T10
Crus acts as effective sphincter
Greater omentum
fused sheet of dorsal mesentery to greater curvature of stomach
Draped over anterior of stomach and transverse colon
Coeliac artery derivatives
Splenic artery
Hepatic artery
l gastric
The pancreas - retro?
Yep
Opens into duodenum halfway down at sphincter of oddi
Liver
4 lobes
Lies in Right hypochondrium
Suspended by falciform and coronary ligaments from diaphragm and ant ab wall.
(develops partially from septum transversum.
Duodenum to small bowel - sphincter?
Nope - no obvious transition
Asc and desc colon retroperitoneal?
Socondarily retroperitoneal
Large bowel characteristic look caused by?
Bands of longitudinal muscle - taenia coli
Rectal sphincters
Internal and 3 external - control continence
Normally closed - by somatic and sympathetic tone stimulation
Detect full bowel - parasympathetic
Evac of bowel;
-parasympathetic innervation, inhibition of symapthetic tone, and voluntary (somatic ) openening of sphincters.
Enteric nervous system
Derived from neural crest
Control motility and secretion and also vascular supply to gut wall
Innervation of gut and associated organs
Sympath and path regulate enteric nerves.
Therefore - secretion, motility and blood supply
Parasympathetic - Vagus to all gut except hindgut (by sacral parasympathetic)
Small intestine - what type of epithelium?
Leaky!
Paracellular transport plays major role.
NaCl absorbtion not directly regulated tightly
Ion absorbtion occurs - drags water with it
Absorbs 8.5 litres per day!!
Role of smooth muscle contraction of Stomach wall
Form chyme - churning action
Force chyme out of the stomach through pylorus
Prox half contraction just to create pressure, pressure gradient pushes chyme into pylorus.
In lower body and fundus - smooth muscle has pacemaker activity and contracts 3/4 times a minutes peristatically from upper to pylorus
This has grinding effect - breaking down to small chyme and also forces some out - although when contraction reaches pylorus - completely closes lumen - so contraction release chyme in little spurts.
Regulation of stomach contraction
Via ENS, para and symp
In response to gastric distension (stretch receptors)
Also - hormones stimulate - ie. gastrin - relaxes upper stomach and enhances lower stomach grinding action
Different sodium solubilities of tract
Duodenum/jejenum - NaH antiporter, cotransport of Na and AA/glucose
Ileum - Na +glucose/AA, NaH antiporter, NaCl cotransporter/ anion exchanger
Colon - NaCl / NaH antiporter / Anion exchanger
Aldosterone effect
Increase sodium absorbtion into tract.
Cl- transport into GI tract
P.D dependant in section (because Na+ moving across)
NaCl cotransport in Ileum and below
HCO3- ileum and below
H+ and HCO3- leave jejenum and ileum in parrallel - how?
NaH antiporter
HCO3- Cl- antiporter
K+ transport in GI tract
Absorbed in whole thing (decreasing amounts) passive via paracellular route in jej/ileum
Secreted passively in colon but also actively absorbed
Aldosterone - stimulates secretion by increasing NaKATPase
Hypokalaemia stimulates absorbtion - conc gradients
Fe absorbtion
Important
Divalent metal transporter
Calcium absorbtion
ECaC channel in apical memb
Endocytosed/naca pump out of BL memb
Important regulators of secretion and absorbtion of tract
ENS: Secretors: ACh Absorbtion:NorA/Opioids
Hormones:Secretors: Leukotrienes, ANP Absorbers:Somatostatins, Epineph
Carb digestion
Salivary amylase - initiates digestion
Pancreatic amylase - most into di/trisaccharides
Brush border disaccharidases
Absorbtion complete by mid jejenum
Protein digestion
Started in stomach - pepsins
Pancreatic - endopeptidases (trypsin) and exopeptidases - carboxypeptidases
Brush border digestion can occur
Uptake at apical memb (against conc grad) coupled to Na+ - carrier for different classes - leave cells via non na dep carrier
Mostly complete absorbtion by end of jejenum
Lipid digestion
Muscular movement of stomach causes emulsion formation with bile salts - inc surface area for lipases to act on - etc
Assembled into chylomicrons in SER - exported by golgi
Vitamin absorbtion
IF release from stomach
Binds recetor and allows endocytosis of vitamin
or can passively diffuse in
or Na coupled transport
Fat soluble vitamins - can be incorporated into micelles - Vit A
Secretin
Release from duodenal S cells
Stimulated by acid in prox duo
Stimulates (via Gs) p[ancreatic secretion of HCO3- and water to washout pancreatic enzymes
CCK
I cells of duodenum
Release stimulated by digestion products in duodenum
Stimulates gall bladder contraction, secretion of pancreatic enzymes
Potentiates action of Secretin