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34 Cards in this Set

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antacid


magnesium hydroxide
Phillips, Milk of Magnesia (all)

route: po
ind: relief of acidity and GERD
action: decreases acid secretions by binding to H ions.
dosage: 3x to 4x qd + qhs + prn
>>diarrhea. Mg may bind to drugs causing a decrease in absorption
antacid


Aluminum hydroxide
Amphogel, Alu-Tab (all otc)

route: po
ind: relief of hyperacidity and GERD
action: decreases acid secretions by binding to H ions
dose: tid up to 6x qd + prn
>>constipation. Al may slow the emptying of drugs from the stomach thus decreasing absorption in the intestines
antacid


Calcium carbonate
Tums, Maalox, Mylanta
route: po
ind: relief of hyperacidity and GERD
action: decreases acid decretiosn by binding to H ions.
dose: prn
histamine-2 antagonists


cimetidine
Tagamet >100 mg is legend
route: po, IV
ind: GERD, ulcer, duodenal ulcer prophlaxis
dose: po 300 mg qid

Tk c food.
>>drowsiness
H2 receptor antagonists

rantidine
Zantac >75 mg legend
route: po, IV
ind: GERD, ulcers, duodenal ulcer prophylaxis
dose: 150 mg bid
Tk c food
>>drowsiness
H2 receptror antagonists


nizatidine
Axid pulvules >75 mg legend
route: po
ind: GERD, duodendal ulcers
dose: 150-300 mg qhs
>>dizziness, drowsiness
H2 receptor antagonist


famotidine
Pepsid >10 mg legend
route: po, IV
ind: GERD, duodenal ulcer (otc for heartburn, indigestion)
dose: GERD 20 mg bid x6 weeks
>>dizziness, drowsiness
suspension: shake well
name drug action of H 2 receptor antagonists:
H2 antagonists bind to H2 receptor sites, lowering acid secretions
name side effects of H2 antagonists ?
common side effects of H 2 antagonists are possible GI upset and drowsiness
name drug action of proton pump inhibitors:
drug action of proton pump inhibitors is to block gastric acid secretions in the stomach.
proton pump inhibitors


omeprazole
Prilosec
route: po
ind: peptic ulcer, H. pylori., duodenal
ulcer, short-term use for estophagitis and GERD
dose: GERD 20 mg qd x 4-8 weeks
>>diarrhea
Tk before meals
Do not crush or chew capsule
proton pump inhibitor



lasoprazole
Prevacid
route: po
ind: GERD, dudenal ulcer, gastric ulcer disease, erosive esophagitis.
dose: GERD, 15 mg qd for up to 8 weekss
tk ac
do not crush or chew capsules
if cap is opened and sprinkled onto food, do not chew or crush granules.
proton pump inhibitor



pantoprazole
Protonix
route: po
ind: GERD
dose: GERD 40 mg qd for up to 8 weeks

do not crush or chew tablet
proton pump inhibitor


esomerazole magnesium
Nexium
route: po
ind: GERD
dose: 20-40 mg qd
do not crush or chew
antidiarrheal



diphenoxylate w/atropine cv medication
Lomotil
route: po
ind: acute or chronic diarrhea
action: slows intestinal motility
dose: 2.5-5 mg qid then prn
>>dry mouth, dizzy, drowsy
do not drink alcohol
drink plenty of H20
antidiarrheal



loperamide
Imodium
route: po
ind: acute or chronic diarrhea
action: slows GI motility and increases viscosity of fecal matter
dose: 2 mg following each loose stool (max 8 mg/day x 2 days)
>>dizzy, drowsy, dry mouth
do not drink alcohol, drink plenty H2O
antidiarrheal



bismuth subsalicilate
Pepto-Bismol (OTC)
route: po
ind: diarrhea and abdominal cramps
action: antisecretory and antibacterial action in GI
dose: 2 tabs or 30 ml prn
>>greyish black stool
drink plenty H2O, chew tablet before swallowing
bulk forming medication


psyllium (OTC)
Metamucil
route: po
ind: constipation
action: holds water within the intestine allowing stools to pass
dose: prn
also used to lower cholesterol in persons with hyperlipidemia
surfactant



docusate sodium (OTC) aka DSS
Colace
route: po, rectal enema
ind: constipation
action: retains fat and water in bowels allowing stools to pass
dose: po 50-500 mg qd
laxative


bisacodyl (OTC)
Dulcolax
route: po, rectal enema or supp.
ind: constipation
action: acts on increasing intestine mucosal lining and water softening stools
dose: 1 pr qd prn
laxative



senna (OTC)
Senokot
route: po
ind: constipation (also used for constipation from opiod agents)
action: irritates intestinal wall and causes osmotic gradient, softening stools
dose: 30 mg qd or bid
laxative



glycerin
glycerin
route: pr
ind: constipation
action: irritates intestinal wall and causes osmotic gradient, softening stools; rectal lubricant
dose: 1 supp. pr qd prn
laxative



sodium phosphate
sodium phosphate, sodium biphosphate
route: po
ind: constipation
dose: 20-30 mL prn
laxative



magnesium hydroxide
Milk of Magnesia
route: po
ind: constipation
dose: 30-60 mL prn
stimulant laxative



phenolphthalein
Ex-Lax
route: po
ind: constipation
dose: 1 dose qhs
bowel evacuants


poly ethylene glycol, sodium sulfate, sodium bicarb, sodium chloride, potassium chloride
Golytely
route: po
ind: evacuate bowels
dose: 1 container (4 L)
laxative



lactulose (enulose)
Cephulac
route: po
ind: constipation
dose: 15-30 mL qd
antiemetic


metoclopramide
Reglan
route: po, IV
ind: antiemetic
action: blocks dopamine receptors in chemoreceptor trigger zone and increases GI motility
>>dizzy, drowsy, diarrhea
dose: nonchemo: 10 mg ac and qhs prn
alcohol may intensify the affect
antiemetic


thiethylperazine maleate
Torecan
route: po, IV
ind: antiemetic
action: inhibits chemoreceptor trigger zone and vomit center
dose: 10 mg qd to tid prn
>>dizzy, drowsy, dry mouth, rash, fever HA
alcohol may intensify effect.
drink plenty of H2O
antiemetic


trimethobenzamide
Tigan route: po, pr, IV
ind: antiemetic
action: depresses the chemoreceptor trigger zone
dosage: 250 mg tid to qid
>>dizzy, drowsy, diarrhea, HA blurred vision
alcohol may intensify affect
drink plenty H2O
anticholinergic antiemetic



scopolamine
Transderm-scop
route: IM,IV, SC, topical
ind: antiemetic
action: affects chemoreceptor trigger zond directy by blocing serotonin in brain stem and GI tract
dose: app 1 patch behind ear q4h before stimulation q 3 days
>>dizzy, drowsy
alcohol may intensify this effect
serotonin receptor antagonist antiemetic



ondansetron HCl
Zofran
route: po, inj
ind: antiemetic, used w/chemotherapy
action: affects chemoreceptor trigger zone directly by blocking serotonin in brainstem and GI tract
dose: 8 mg 30 mins prior to chemotherapy then 8 mg 8 hours after dose q 12 h for several days
>>fever, HA, constipation, diarrhea
Tk utd
do not drink alcohol
anticholinergic antiemetic


meclazine
Antivert, Bonine Ativert/50 >25 mg legend

route: po
ind: prevent motion sickness
action: affects the labrynth within the inner ear decreasing stimulation
dose: 12.5 to 25 mg 1 h prior to event
>>dizzy, drowsy, dry mouth
anticholinergic antiemetic



dimenhydrinate
Dramamine
route: po, IM, IV
action: relieve emesis due to motion sickness
action: affects the labrynth within the inner ear decreasing stimulation
dose: 50-100 mg q 4-6 h
>>dizzy, drowsy, dry mouth