Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
celiac disease involvement
PROXIMAL small bowel

(tropical sprue = entire small bowel)
most likely location for a volvulus
sigmoid colon

(most other parts of the colon are held in place by the posterior peritoneal membrane)
Z-E syndrome
food in the gastric lumen does NOT have an effect on serum gastrin
(remains at the same elevated level)
symptoms of choledocolithiasis
=stone in common bile duct
colicky RUQ pain
jaundice and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
can lead to cholangitis (life threatening)
normal mucosa of distal esophagus
non-keratinized stratified squamous
treatment of congenital pyloric stenosis
presents at 3-6 weeks

Tx: pyloromyotomy (pyloric muscle is partially cut to relieve the obstruction)
Menetrier's disease
=protein losing gastroenteropathy (and deficient gastric acid)
increased mucus production leads to PROTEIN loss from excessive gastric secretions
can lead to hypoalbuminemia and peripheral edema
Plummer-Vinson syndrome
atrophic glossitis
esophageal webs
*increasd risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
innervation (p-sympathetic) to internal anal sphincter
pelvic nerve
innervation (p-sympathetic) to external anal sphincter
pudendal nerve
Budd-Chiari syndrome
=hepatic vein obstruction
complication of thrombogenic/myeloproliferative disorders (PV), also of hepatitis
presentation -> progressive severe ascites and tender hepatomegaly over months
**LFTs are near normal
Dx = hepatic venography (definitive = liver Bx)
tracheoesophageal fistula
most common type = C
-proximal esophagus ending in a blind loop
-usually discovered with the 1st meal [respiratory distress and cyanosis due to aspirated milk]
inferior pancreatoduodenal artery is a branch from which larger artery?

(superior pancreatoduodenal is a branch of common hepatic from the celiac trunk)

*these two can form anastomoses when celiac trunk is occluded by a clot
most common location of Meckel's diverticulum
distal ileum within 12 inches of the ileocecal valve

can contain pancreatic tissue or gastric mucosa
is alcoholic fatty change of the liver reversible?
yes, if alcohol is stopped
a patient with Crohn's disease' family members are at increased risk for
Ulcerative colitis [suggests that these two diseases are ends of the same spectrum]
necrotizing enterocolitis
most commonly presents around when infant has first oral foods

gangrene of terminal ileum and ascending colon
histo of Reye syndrome
extensive microvesicular steatosis
histo of alkaholic hepatitis
AST/ALT ratio >1.5
swollen and necrotic hepatocytes, neutrophil infiltration, mallory bodies [hyaline], fatty change, fibrosis around central vein
histo of chronic active hepatitis
chronic inflammation with continuing necrosis of hepatocytes surrounding the portal tract [limiting plate]*
also see piecemeal necrosis
histo of active hepatitis
lymphocyte infiltrates and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes
S-100 marker
melanoma, neural tumors and astrocytomas

(can help determine the origin of metastatic lesions)
chylomicrons are produced by____
enterocytes (intestinal epithelial cells)

LPL is released from external surface of vascular endothelium of many tissues
highly aggressive multinodular tumor that arises from blood vessels
vinyl chloride is a risk factor for liver angiosarcoma
veins anastomosed in a portal-caval shunt
left renal vein (drains directly into the IVC)
splenic vein (drains directly into portal vein)
metronidazole can have a reaction like which other drug?
disulfuram (when taken w/alcohol)
curling ulcer
acute gastric ulcer in association with severe burns
cushing ulcer
acute gastric ulcer in association with brain injury
Krukenberg tumor
bilateral involvement of the ovaries by metastatic stomach carcinoma
*signet ring cells
Virchow node
involvement of supraclavicular lymph node by metastatic stomach carcinoma
ischemic bowel disease most often affects these two areas of the colon
splenic flexure
rectosigmoid junction

[these are 'watershed' areas btwn the SMA, IMA and internal iliac arteries]
tetracycline toxicity
unpredictable hypersensitivity-like reaction with MICROvesicular fatty change in liver
perivenular sclerosis
associated with alcoholic hepatitis
surrounds central veins
can lead to cirrhosis
primary biliary cirrhosis
anti-mitochondrial antibodies
leads to severe obstructive jaundice
setatorrhea, pruritis, hypercholesterolemia (xanthomas)
high alk phos levels
primary sclerosing cholangitis
both intra and extrahepatic
inflammation and fibrosis of bile ducts
'beading' on ERCP
associated with ulcerative colitis
can lead to secondary biliary cirrhosis
*charcot's triad
-jaundice + fever + RUQ pain
aflatoxin B1
associated with hepatocellular carcinoma
thought to cause specific point pmutations in p53 gene
narcotic of choice for acute cholecystitis
-> least likely to cause a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi
(b/c it has anti-muscarinic properties)
hyperplastic polyp
small, rounded
glands and sawtooth crypts composed of goblet and columnar epithelial cells
no atypia
*90% of colonic polyps
locations of oral cancers
floor of mouth > tip of tongue > hard palate > base of the tongue
which zone of the liver contains the P450 system?
Zone 3: is very sensitive to ischemic injury

(zone 1 is the most sensitive to toxic injury. this area shows infiltration in hepatitis)
arteries supplying the greater curvature of the stomach
proximal: short gastric (arises from splenic artery)
distal: right gastroeploic
(the left gastroeploic can alternatively supply if the right is damaged)
arteries supplying the lesser curvature of the stomach
proximal: left gastric (arises from celiac artery)

distal: right gastric (arises from hepatic artery before the gastroduodenal)
Zenker's diverticulum
false diverticulum formed by herniation of the mucosa at a point of weakness at jxn of pharynx and esophagus
ass'd with halitosis and can cause dysphagia if it fills w/food
plummer-vinson syndrome
triad of
-dysphagia due to upper esophageal webs
-atrophic glossitis
schatzki rings
mucosal rings found in distal esophagus at squamocolumnar jxn
type of meals to eat post-gastric bypass
frequent, small, high fat meals
drug rxn btwn erythromycin and cisapride
arrhythmias: torsades des pointes, prolonged QT interval
v-tach, v-fib also

*also watch ketoconazole, fluconazole, clarithromycin, nefadazone and idinavir
splenic artery and vein are found in the ____
splenorenal ligament
meconium ileus
manifestation of cystic fibrosis
(meconium gets 'stuck' in the small bowel)
can cause gut perforation or fistulas
manifestations of stone in the common bile duct
bile backs up and goes into circulation
-> CONJUGATED hyperbilirubinemia
-> tea colored urine
free edge of the lesser omentum contains 3 structures
common bile duct
hepatic artery
portal vein
connection btwn the greater and lesser omentum
foramen of Winslow
-bounded by the common bile duct, duodenum and stomach
chronic administration of PPIs can lead to
hypergastrinemia (due to decreased negative feedback)
this may increase risk of developing gastric carcinoid tumors
PGE1 analog
stimulates gastric secretion of mucus
used to treat NSAID-induced gastritis
selectivey bids to necrotic peptic ulcer tissue and acts as a barrier to acid, pepsin and bile
requires presence of acid for maximal effect
-> don't give with H2 blocker or PPI!
used to treat hepatic encephalopathy
-acidifies the stool and prevents diffusion of ammonia from colon to the blood
sulfpyridine + 5-ASA
-absorbed inthe colon (bacteria break the azo bond)
used to treat ulcerative colitis (more than crohns)
unconjugated 5-ASA (less SEs than sulfsalazine)
has many formulations
-asacol: delayed release to ileum and beyond
-pentasa: released throught GI tract
-rowasa: rectal suspension enema (rectum and distal colon)
predisposing factors for gastric carcinoma
pernicious anemia, chronic gastritis, achlorhydria, bacterial overgrowth, neoplastic polyps
foregut derivatives
mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, oral cavity, pharynx, tongue, tonsils, salivary glands, LRT, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
most important predictor of metastatic potential of carcinoid tumors
size and location

(stomach, ileum and cecum have high metastatic potential, esp if >2 cm)
atrophic gastritis
associated with pernicious anemia
gastric epithelium replaces gastric and cheif cells with goblet cells
Reye syndrome is a acquired abnormality of which organelle?
mitochondria [mechanism is unknown]
which anaesthetic can cause idiosyncratic hepatic failure?
ranges from hepatitis to focal massive hepatic necrosis
femoral hernias
more common in women
loop of bowel passes into saphenous opening of fascia lata and through cribiform fascia
incomplete fusion of lateral body folds during 4th week of development
causes abdominal viscera to protrude through abdominal cavity
sliding hiatal hernia
most common form
frequently associated with GERD
annular pancreas results from
abnormality in rotation of ventral pancreatic bud around second part of duodenum
high risk of colon cancer is associated with

(nutrition related)
a low fiber diet

(smoking also, but to a less extent)
hepatoduodenal ligament
connects liver to 1st part of duodenum

proper hepatic artery (cystic artery is a branch)
common bile duct
portal vein
drug of choice for acute flare ups of Crohn's disease
treatment for Wilson's disease