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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what CNs stimulate salivary secretion?
facial, glossopharyngeal
cells that secrete intrinsic factor?
parietal cells, stomach
cells that secrete gastric acid?
parietal cells, stomach
cells that secrete pepsin?
chief cells, stomach
what is the action of pepsin?
protein digestion; optimal function at pH 1.0-3.0
what promotes gastric acid secretion?
histamine, ACh, gastrin
what inhibits gastric acid secretion?
somatostatin, GIP, prostaglandin, secretin
source of HCO3-?
mucosal cells, stomach and duodenum
source of gastrin?
G cells, antrum of stomach
actions of gastrin?
increases gastric H+ secretion, increases growth of gastric mucosa, increases gastric motility
source of CCK?
I cells, duodenum, jejunem
actions of CCK?
increases pancreatic secretion, increases gallbladder contraction, decreases gastric emptying, increases growth of exocrine pancreas and gallbladder
why does pain worsen after fatty food ingestion in cholelithiasis?
increased CCK
source of secretin?
S cells, duodenum
actions of secretin?
increases pancreatic HCO3- secretion decreases gastric acid secretion
sources of somatostatin?
D cells, pancreatic islets, GI mucosa
actions of somatostatin?
decreases gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion, pancreatic and SI flud secretion, gallbladder contraction, and insulin and glucagon release
source of gastric inhibitory peptide?
K cells, duodenum and jejunum
actions of GIP?
exocrine: decreases gastric H+ secretion
endocrine: increases insulin release
only GI hormone stimulated by all 3 classes - gatty acids, AAs, oral glucose?
why is an oral glucose load used more rapidly thhan the equivalent given by IV?
increased GIP - stimulates insulin release
where is alcohol absorbed?
location of glucose absorption, vitamins A & D, fatty acids, iron, and calcium?
location of absorption of glucose, galactose, monosaccharides, disaccharides, vitamins A/D, fatty acids, proteins, and AAs?
proximal jejunum
location of absorption of water soluble vitamins, disaccharides, fatty acids, proteins, and AAs?
terminal jejunum
location of absorption of proteins/AAs, vitamin B12, bile salts
ileum - acts as a reserve; can absorb additional nutrients if required
site of absorption of water, K+, NaCl, short-chain fatty acids?
what converts trypsinogen to active enzyme trypsin?
enterokinase, a duodenal brush-border enzyme
what is the role of salivary amylase?
starts digestion; hydrolyzes alpha-1,4 linkages to yield disaccharides (maltose, maltotriose, and alpha-limit dextrans)
highest concentration in the duodenal lumen, hydrolyzes starch to oligosaccharides and disaccharides
pancreatic amylase
at brush border of the intestine, the rate-limiting step in carbohydrate digestion, produce monosaccharides from oligo- and dissacharides
oligosaccharide hydrolases
what does the apical surface of hepatocytes face?
bile canaliculi
what does the basolateral surface of hepatocytes face?
what is the only significant mechanism for cholesterol excretion?
type of bilirubin conjugated with glucuronic acid; water soluble
direct bilirubin
pathophysiology of physiological jaundice of the newborn?
unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia; increased bili production and relative deficiency of glucuronyl transferase in immature liver
name 3 causes of neonatal cholestasis
extrahepatic biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, CMV