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72 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What type of parasite is Entamoeba?
Protozoa
What type of parasite is Giardia?
Protozoa
What type of parasite is Cryptosporidium?
Protozoa
Differences of Protozoa vs Helminths (Cellular, reproduction, etc)
Protozoa: microscopic, 1 celled eukaryotes, reproduce by binary fission
Helminths: macroscopic, multicellular worms, reproduce sexually
What type of parasite is Ascaris?
Helminth; Nematode (roundworm)
What type of parasite is Trichuris?
Helminth; Nematode (roundworm)
What type of parasite is Enterobius?
Helminth; Nematode (roundworm)
What type of parasite is Ancylostoma?
Helminth; Nematode (roundworm)
What type of parasite is Strongyloides?
Helminth; Nematode (roundworm)
Protozoa that likes to eat RBCs
Entamoeba histolytica
Trophs may invade intestinal mucosa causing bloody diarrhea or invade BV and spread to other organs
Entamoeba histolytica
Flask-shaped ulcer
Entamoeba histolytica
Bloody diarrhea, weight loss, fever, GI obstruction
Entamoeba histolytica
Adult form looks like a bearded man
Giardia lamblia
MC parasite in MN
Giardia lamblia
Infects wild animals, so can be acquired even in seemingly pristine waters
Giardia lamblia
Malabsorption syndrome (foul-smelling, fatty diarrhea and ab cramping)
Giardia lamblia
Beavers are often implicated as potential reservoirs
Giardia lamblia
Really, really tiny and acid fast
Cryptosporidium parvum
Unrelenting diarrhea in pts with AIDS, transient diarrhea in non-IC pts
Cryptosporidium parvum
Anaesthetic rxn
Ascaris (they crawl out of mouth, nose, anus. ick.)
MC roundworm in the world
Ascaris lumbricoides
Adult worms are BIG with characteristic 3 lipped mouth
Ascaris lumbricoides
Hemorrhage, inflammation and edema of lungs; GI obstruction; block bile/pancreatic ducts
Ascaris lumbricoides
Trichuris trichiura AKA
Whipworm
Eggs have characteristic "bipolar plugs"
Trichuris trichiura
Most infections prob asymptomatic; diarrhea, dysentery, anemia (esp in kids). Children may also show mental and physical developmental delays
Trichuris trichiura
Enterobius vermicularis AKA
pinworm
Scotch Tape Test useful
Enterobius vermicularis
MC sx is perianal itching
Enterobius vermicularis
Mom lives in intestine, crawls out at night, leaves eggs on perianal skin (babies can crawl back in or eggs get on hands)
Enterobius (EnteroBUS) vermicularis
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus AKA
hookworms
Most infections asymptomatic; some have Fe def anemia, children may have mental and physical developmental delays
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus
Mouth has cutting teeth that help to feed on blood
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus; may cause Fe def anemia
Where do Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus babies enter the human?
Skin
May cause an Fe def anemia
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus
Signs of Fe def anemia
Microcytosis (low MCV), hypochromasia (low MCHC), > anisocytosis (vary in size, > RDW) and > poikilocytosis (vary in shape)
Hook-shaped larvae
Strongyloides stercoralis
Has two life cycles: parasitic and free-living
Strongyloides stercoralis
Pnemonitis early on, ab pain and diarrhea later; autoinfection may occur (e.g. in constipation)
Strongyloides stercoralis
Diphyllobothrium latum AKA
fish tapeworm
Most prevalent in areas where humans eat lots of fish (Scandinavia and Great Lakes)
Diphyllobothrium latum
Two intermediate hosts: fish and copepod
Diphyllobothrium latum
Definitive host of Diphyllobothrium latum infections
humans or other fish eating creatures
Infection is usually asymptomatic but can lead to B12 def and megaloblastic anemia
Diphyllobothrium latum
MC in areas where dogs used to herd sheep
Echinococcus granulosus
Definitive host of Echinococcus granulosus
dogs
Parasite eggs hatch in the intestine into onchospheres that penetrate the intestinal wall, enter the BS and find their way to other organs to for hydatid cyts
Echinococcus granulosus
What is of major concern with a Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst?
They may become secondarily infected, or, if they leak fluid, it may cause a serious anaphylactic reaction
May lead to GI obstruction; cysticercosis
Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (Pork tapeworm)
Taenia saginata AKA
Beef tapeworm
Taenia solium AKA
Pork tapeworm
Giardia and Strongyloides infections may require what additional tests for dx?
duodenal aspirate or small bowel bx
Entamoeba may require what additional test for dx?
large bowl bx
Enterobius (pinworm) may require what additional test for dx?
scotch tape test
Echinococcus or Taenia infections may require what additional test for dx?
Imaging studies to look for cysts
3 intestinal nematodes that are acquired by the ingestion of eggs:
Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
Two worms that are acquired when their larvae penetrate through the skin
Nectar americanus (hookworm) and Strongyloides stercoralis
Name 3 roundworms that have the potential to invade the lung
Ascaris lumbricoides, Nectar americanus and Strongyloides stercoralis
Name 3 intestinal protozoa
Entamoeba, Crytptosporidium and Giardia (ECG)
Name 3 Cestodes (tapeworms)
Diphyloobothrium, Echinococcus, Taenia
Name 5 Nematodes (roundworms)
Ascaris, Trichuris, Enterobius, Ancylostoma, Strongyloides (ATE AS)
Active form of extracellular protozoa
Trophozoite; grows and replicates by binary fission
Dormant form of extracellular protozoa, transmitted between humans
cyst
Definitive host of Echinococcus granulosus
Dog/Sheep (NOT human!)
Nematode routes of infection: Ingested?
Enterobius, Ascaris, Trichinella (EAT)
Nematode routes of infection: Cutaneous?
Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Necator (Get into your feet from the SANd)
Brain cysts, seizures
Taenia solium (cysticercosis)
Liver cysts
Echinococcus granulosus
B12 def
Diphyllobothrium latum
Microcytic anemia
Ancylostoma, Necator
Perianal pruritus
Enterobius