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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
physiological function of lipids
membrane material
energy source & insulation
fat soluble vitamins
problems with lipid digestion
poor water solubility- enzymes
aggregate into large complex-
contact digestive surface
flow of lipid
chylomicrons formed in intestines
enter circ thru lymph
travel in blood vessels
deliver to tissues
return to liver
process & repackage
recirc as VLDL
lipoprotein structure
(to increase solubil in plasma)
cholesterol esters & triacyl glycerols in center (hydrophobic)
phospholipid outer layer
cholesterol within phospholipid (polar end out)
proteins bind PL layer for recognition
lipid transport molecules
characteristics of chylomicrons
formed in intestine
transport of dietary TAG
associated with apo A, B48, C I,II,III & E
characteristics of VLDL
formed in liver
transport of endogenous TAG
short lived (6-8 hr)
apo B100, C I,II,III & E
characteristics of LDL
formed in circulation (breakdown IDL)
delivers cholesterol to tissues
apo B100
characteristics of HDL
smallest (dense)
cholesterol "mop"
returns extra chol to liver
apo A, C I,II,III, D & E
steps in absorption of fats
Minor digestion of TAG in mouth/stomach
Majority in duodenum/jejunum- panc enzymes
micelle formation (bile acids)-lipolytic enzymes can work
Absorption lipolytic products from the micelle into the intestinal
epithelial cell
Re-esterification to form triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters
Assembly and export of chylomicrons to lymphatics
enzymes in lipid digestion
Pancreatic Lipase (major)
lingual & gastric lipase
(infants use gastric)
cholesterol esterase (activated by bile)
phospholipase (activated by trypsin)
pancreatic lipase
major enzyme for lipid digestion
needs COLIPASE to activate
not zymogen in pancreas
cholesterol esterase
activated by bile
secreted by pancreas
acts on chol esters
activated by trypsin
cleaves phospholipids
secreted by pancreas (PLA2)
hydrolize ester linkage at C2
form lysophospholipids
powerful detergent
product of phospholipase
aid digestion
also secreted by liver (lecithin/phosphotidylcholine) aids PLA2
in bee & cobra venom- destroy cells
product of cholesterol esterase
1 FA and 1 cholesterol
from cholesterol ester
(have to get chol out to sfc 1st)
product of pancreatic lipase
1st- diacyl glycerol + FA
2nd- 2 free FAs + monoglyceride
(from TAG)
mechanism of colipase
embeds into PL surface
facilitate transfer of TG units
(knockout mouse dies)
products of linual & gastric lipase
(from TAGs w/med chain FAs)
product of milk lipase
FFA + glycerol
(from TAGs w/med chain FAs in SI)
regulated by bile acids
product of PLA2
unsat FFA
(from PLs w/unsat FA on pos 2- in SI)
regulated by bile salt & Ca++
product of lipoprotein lipase
FFA + Glycerol
(from TAGs in chylomicron or VLDL in capillaries)
regulated by apo CII & insulin
properties of olestra
from cotton seed & soybean oils
sucrose in middle
can't be hydrolyzed
not digestible
steatorrhea, impaired vitamin uptake
properties of orlistat
lipase inhibitor
forms covalent bond (irreversible) w/serine active site
lowers LDL better
improved diabetes control (free FAs decrease ins sens)
decreased vit uptake

very effective wt loss for morbid obese
transport of FAs across membrane
short chains diffuse b/c solubility ok
LCFAs have transporters
Acyl CoA synthetase attaches CoA to prevent rediffuse
transfer to FA Bind Protein (chaperone)
deliver to ER for resynth of chylomicrons
LCFA membrane transporters
CD36 (MPs & HDL R)
FATP- unknown mechanism
properties of FABP
multiple Beta sheets
form hydrophobic pocket
delivers to smooth ER
resynthesis of cholesterol esters
cholesterol diffuses thru membrane
ACAT (acyl chol acyl transferase)
acyl cholesterol acyl transferase
re-esterifies cholesterol after absorption
uses FA CoA (to CoASH)