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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the medical term for "dilation of pupils"
mydriasis
which organs make up the GI tract?
alimentary tract + accessory organs: liver, gallbladder, teeth, salivary glands, tongue, pancreas.
how long is the alimentary tract?
9 meters= 30 feet
what layers constitute the GI tract?
mucosa
submucosa
muscularis/externa
serosa
Name the outermost layer of the GI tract with connective tissue for protection, covered by squamous epithelium?
serosa
which is the innermost layer of the GI tract with absorptive and secretory features?
mucosa
which layer of the GI tract has thick vascular connective tissue with Autonomic nervous supply?
submucosa
which layer of the GI tract is responsible for segmental contractions= peristalsis c longitudinal smooth muscle, PANS and SANS nerve fibers?
muscularis/muscularis externa
a collapsible tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach, located behind the trachea?
esophagus
what type of tissue is the majority of the esophagus ?
squamous epithelium
what type of muscle makes up the esophagus?
upper 1/3= smooth muscle
mid portion=smooth + skeletal
lower 1/3= smooth muscle
what is considered to be the most distensible part of the GI tract?
the stomach
which organ is connected to the esophagus above and duodenum below?
stomach
in this part of the stomach _______ the parietal cells produce ?
Fundus/Cardiac
HCL-allows pepsinogen to be converted to pepsin
Intrinsic Factor- for B12 absorbtion
in the body of the stomach, there are long folds along the inner surface called?
rugae with openings within the folds called gastric pits
which is the innermost layer of the GI tract with absorptive and secretory features?
mucosa
which layer of the GI tract has thick vascular connective tissue with Autonomic nervous supply?
submucosa
which layer of the GI tract is responsible for segmental contractions= peristalsis c longitudinal smooth muscle, PANS and SANS nerve fibers?
muscularis/muscularis externa
a collapsible tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach, located behind the trachea?
esophagus
what type of tissue is the majority of the esophagus ?
squamous epithelium
In the antrum/pyloric region,this main part of the stomach resides what types of cells?
G (gastrin)
chief/zymogenic (pepsinogen)
goblet (mucus)
where does almost all absorption of food occur?
in the proximal small intestine
what are the only substances absorbed by the stomach?
alcohol and ASA due to their lipid solubility
what is the "door to large intestine"?
ileocecal valve
in the small intestine, what type of cells allow for digestion to occur?
columnar epithelial lining
what is the largest part of the GI?
the small intestine. 3 meters=12 feet
what are plica circulares?
folded mucosa and submucosa in the small intestine where digestion occurs
where is the MC place for Chron's Dz to occur
terminal ileum
what are the functional units of the large intestine?
Haustrations and crypts )no villi)
what is the largest internal organ?
the liver
what makes up the blood supply to the largest internal organ?
the liver has a dual blood supply: hepatic artery (o2) and portal vein (nutrients).
what are some of the functions of the largest internal organ?
liver: produces and secretes bile, detoxifies blood, metabolism/synthesis of glucose, TRG's, ketones, Plasma proteins made: albumin, globulins
what is the name of a disorder that is common to alcoholics, and they cannot convert ammonia to urea?
hepatic encephalopathy
pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen; characterized by or associated with upper abdominal fullness, early satiety, burning, bloating, belching etc...
dyspepsia
retrosternal burning is also known as?
heartburn. seperate and distinct from dyspepsia
what are some common etiologies of dyspepsia?
overeating, stress, too much coffee or alcohol, NSAIDs, ABX, corticosteroids
what is the function of the gallbladder?
stores bile
secretes CCK and will contract GB in response to fatty acids
what is the rold of the pancreas?
endocrine and exocrine gland
exo for digestion
secretes amylase, lipase, trypsin
what is the inactive form of trypsin secreted by the pancreas?
zymogen
a depression just behind the root of the tongue between the folds in the throat.
vallecula
what does amylase (in the saliva) help to digest?
starch (a polysacc) to maltose
what do pepsin and HCL from the gastric juices digest?
proteins
what do proteases *(like trypsin) from the pancreas digest?
proteins to make A.A, fatty acids and monoglycerides
FUN FACT!!
in addition to secreting fluids containing digestive enzymes, the GI tract produces and secretes hormones such as gastrin, secretin and CCK that contribute to the control of GI function! pg. 881 patho
what produces Gastric intrinsic factor?
parietal cells.
what is the intrinsic factor necessary for?
absorbtion of B12
what effect does histamine have on gastric acid secretions?
increases it
what are the two glands in the lining of the stomach mucosa that secrete Hcl, pepsinogen, intrinsic factor, mucus and gastrin?
oxyntic glands
pyloric glands (mucus, pepsinogen, gastrin) p 880 patho
what is the name of mucus producing glands that are concentrated at the site where the contents from the stomach and secretions from the liver and pancreas enter the duodenum?
Brunner's Glands.
where 80% of peptic ulcers occur.
where is the "Z" line or zigzag line?
the junction of the esophageal and gastric mucosa
if you suspect ZE syndrome, what is the most specific level to test?
secretin (more specific than gastrin)
what digestive hormone stimulates the secretion of gastric juices rich in pepsin and HcL?
gastrin
which digestive hormone inhibits gastric secretion and motility?
GIP-Gastric Ihibitory Peptide
which digestive hormone inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates secretion of pancreatic juices and ejection of bile by GB
Secretin
which digestive hormone stimulates ejection of bile from GB and stimulates pancreatic juices, but opposes the action of gastrin and therefore raises the pH of gastric juice
CCK
what is the most specific and MC presentation for GI problem?
abdominal pain
a congenital condition which affects the alimentary tract by causing the esophagus to end in a blind-ended pouch rather than connecting normally to the stomach.
esophageal atresia
this condition causes a rupture of the esophagus. It is generally caused by excessive vomiting in eating disorders such as bulimia although it may rarely occur in extremely forceful coughing or other situations. It can cause pneumomediastinum and/or mediastinitis (air or inflammation of the mediastinum) and sepsis
Boerhaave syndrome
The classic Meckler's triad of symptoms includes vomiting, lower chest pain, and cervical subcutaneous emphysema following overindulgence in food or alcohol, but is observed in only half of the cases. The most common chest radiograph findings in spontaneous esophageal rupture (SER) are pleural effusion (91%) and pneumothorax (80%).
Boerhaave syndrome
refers to bleeding from tears in the mucosa at the junction of the stomach and esophagus, usually caused by severe retching, coughing, or vomiting. It is often associated with alcoholism and eating disorders and there is some evidence that presence of a hiatal hernia is a required predisposing condition.
a Mallory-Weiss tear)
a condition usually seen in children; there is no innervation to the colon and therefore there is no peristalsis resulting in?
aganglionic megacolon
what are the 5 F's you should observe upon inspection on the abdomen of a patient with suspected GI problem
FAT
FLATUS
FECES
FETUS
FLUID (ascites)
(Neoplasms)
if a patient complains of epigastric pain that radiates to the back what are you top 2 differentials?
1.AAA
2.Pancreatitis
what are some common findings in peritonitis?
rigid board-like abdomen
guarding and tenderness
absent bowel sounds
+ obturator
+ iliopsoas
rebound tenderness
if pain in abdomen is out of proportion to your exam/findings, suspect?
Mesenteric ischemia
what should every patient with acute abdominal pain have performed?
rectal exam
+ pelvic exam for females
black/tarry blood in the stool is termed?
melena
the term for vomit with blood?
hematemesis
bright red blood per rectum is termed?
hematochezia
what type of cell allows for absorption of digested food in the small intestine?
Columnar epithelium
the most common symptom of an intra-abdominal problem is?
abdominal pain
what is the study of choice to Dx gastroduodenal ulcers? (+ erosive esophagitis and upper GI CA )
upper endoscopy
what is rumination?
the chewing and swallowing of food that is regurgitated willingly after meals
effortless reflux of liquid or food stomach contents is defined as?
regurgitation
a state of disordered central nervous system functino resulting from failure of the liver to detoxify noxious agents of gut origin because of hepatocellular dysfunction and portosystemic shunting.
hepatic encephalopathy
a syndrome that is caused by gastrin-secreting gut neuroendocrine tumors (gastromas) which result in hpergastrinemia and acid hypersecretion?
Zollinger-Ellsion Syndrome
where are peptic ulcers usually found (solitary)>?
duodenal bulb
MEN 1 stands for ?
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.