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32 Cards in this Set

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what's the MCC of infantile gastroenteritis
Rotavirus
Name some symptoms caused by viral enteritis
Abdominal cramps (#1)
vomiting
watery diarrhea
fever
myalgia
name some symptoms caused by bacterial enteritis
bloody diarrhea
small volume stools
fever
tenesmus- urge
suprapubic pain relieved by BM
what's the MCC of viral enteritis
Norwalk virus
incubation period for staph
6 hrs; from food left at room temp
incubation period for botulism
within 24 hrs of eating canned food
incubation period for salmonella and shigella
24-48 hrs
incubation period for Giardiasis
after one week with recurrent diarrhea
incubation period for C.Diff
2 weeks after antimicrobial use
what causes cholera?
ingestion of fecal contaminated food and water
what are the symptoms of cholera?
rice water stool
non-bloody diarrhea
metabolic acidosis from lost bicarb
Dehydration
Hypotension
What is the mechanism of V.Cholera?
interacts with G proteins and cyclic AMP to open ion channels
how do you treat cholera?
fluids (lactated Ringer's)
antimicrobials - tetracyclin, ampicillin
Describe the diarrhea caused by shigellosis
abrupt onset with lower ab cramps and tenesmus
stool mixed with blood and mucus
Fecal leukocytosis present
what are the 3 clinical patterns of salmonellosis

all caused by ingestion of food or water
enteric fever(typhoid fever)incubation is 5-14 days; infection localizes in peyer's patches

acute enterocolitis - most common, often bloody diarrhea

salmonella bacteremia - septicemic; common with HIV pts
what are the symptoms of enteric fever (typhoid fever)
gradual onset of malaise,headache, n/v, ab pain
Rose spots, brady, splenomegaly
leukopenia
the 3 MCCs of traveler's diarrhea
E.Coli
Shigella
Campilobacter jejuni

Presents with chronic watery diarrhea
fever is rare
what causes hemorrhagic colitis
E. Coli 0157:H7
ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked beef
S/S of hemorrhagic colitis
severe cramps
watery diarrhea progresses to bloody diarrhea
fever

complicated cases can result in hemolytic-uremic syndrome or thrombocytopenic purpura

Do not give antibiotics; they may increase the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome
who's at risk for getting C.Diff
Patients on antibiotics
What is Reye's syndrome
a disease that affects the liver and brain possibly caused by ingestion of salicylate compounds to treat chicken pox or flu; Common in children
S/S of protozoal infection
ab pain
wheezing/hemoptysis(loffler's)
steatorrhea (fatty stools)
pruritis
dysentery
if you see ova, parasites, and eosinophilia on lab test, what would you suggest?
Protozoal infection
what is the most common water borne infection
Giardiasis, also known as Beaver Fever
S/S of Giardia
FACED

Fatty, foul smelling stool
Ab pain
Excessive flatus
Cysts/tropophozoites in stool
Diarrhea
Tx for Giardia
Metronidazole (flagyl)
Tinidazole
what's the treatment for C.Diff
Metronidazole (flagyl), Vanco
when treating acute diarrhea, what agents should be avoided if there is fever, bloody diarrhea or evidence of toxicity
Opiod agents
The type of diarrhea that usually disappears with fasting
Osmotic diarrhea
What type of diarrhea is caused by lactase deficiency?
Osmotic diarrhea
What are some causes of secretory diarrhea?
Acute infections:

Cholera
E.coli
Rotavirus
Shigella
Salmonella
Yersinia
Campylobacter
What does diarrhea with vomiting and fever suggests?
Food poisoning