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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the retroperitoneal structures:
SAD PUCKER: suprarenal gland, aorta/IVC, duodenum (2nd, 3rd, 4th part), pancreas (not tail), Ureters, colon (ascending, descending), eosphagus (lower 2/3), rectum (upper 2/3)
Where are the meissner's and auerbach's plexuses located?
Meissners (submucosa)
Auerbachs (myenteric): between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis externa
Where are the brunner's glands located?
The submucosa of the duodenum
Which section of the digestive tract has the most goblet cells?
Where are the peyer's patches located?
What does the colon have in terms of absorptive capacity?
crypts but NO villi
What arteries have poor anastamoses?
Short gastrics IF splenic artery is blocked;
If abdominal aorta is blocked, what 4 anastamoses exist?
Superior to inferior epigastric, pancreaticoduodenal, and rectal;
and Middle colic to left colic
In portal hypertension, what portosystemic anastamoses form?
Esophageal varices: left gastric-->esophageal
Caput medusae: paraumbilical--> superficial and inferior epigastric
Internal hemorrhoids: superior rectal-->middle and inferior rectal
What are the main differences above and below pectinate line?
Above: ectoderm, adenocarcinoma, internal hemorrhoids, painless since visceral innervation, drain to portal system
Below: endoderm, squamous cell carcinoma, external hem, painful since somatic, drain to IVC
What is zone 1 affected by?
Zone 3?
Zone 1: viral hepatitis
Zone 3: alcoholic hepatitis, toxins, ischemia; contains p-450 system
What does the femoral sheath NOT contain?
Femoral Nerve
Remember order towards navel is NAVL
What is the site of protrusion of an indirect hernia and it's relation to the inferior epigastic artery/ what's it covered by?
Internal inguinal ring and Lateral; covered by ALL 3 layers of spermatic fascia (external, cremasteric muscle, and internal spermatic fascia)
What is the site of protrusion of an direct hernia and it's relation to the inferior epigastic artery/what's it covered by?
Abdominal wall Medial to the inferior epigastric artery/ covered only by external spermatic fascia
What is the defect behind an indirect inguinal hernia?
failure of processus vaginalis to close (seen in male infants)
What are the border's of Hesslebach's triangle and what comes thru it?
Inferior epigastric artery, lateral border of rectus abdominus and inguinal ligament
Direct inguinal hernia comes thru it
What is the main consequence of femoral hernia?
Leading cause of bowel incarceration
(more common in women)
Which hormone inhibits all GI secretions?
How does vagal stimulation affect the stomach?
Ach makes parietal cells secrete gastric acid. GRP makes G cells of the antrum secret gastrin which signals to ECL cells to release histimine which signals to parietal cells
How does flow rate affect pancreatic secretions?
Low flow: high Cl-
High flow: high bicarb
What does the D-xylose absorption test measure?
distinguishes GI mucosal damage from other causes of malabsorption