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25 Cards in this Set

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spontaneous vomiting not preceeded by nausea
projectile vomiting
causes of nerogenic constipation
MS, stroke, congenital defect
causes of normal constipation
low fiber in diet, sedentary lifestyle, hypothyroidism, opiates, aging, use of antacids high in CaCO3 or AlOH, drugs used for HTN
what are the three types of diarrhea?
osmotic (nonabsorbabale substance, like lactose. large volume)
secretory (from toxin--lots of mucus produced)
motility (food not mixed properly--Crohn's disease, e.g.)
parietal pain
from peritoneum--local, lateralized, and intense
visceral pain
from an organ--often midline and dull. pain is diffuse, vague radiating
3 types of abdominal pain
visceral, parietal, and referred
upper GI bleeding
bleeding from the duodenum-up
from peptic ulcers or mallory-weiss care
lower GI bleeding
lower sm. intestine, colon, and rectum
from polyps, cancer, inflammatory diseases
occult GI bleeding
not visible to naked eye--must do hemoocult test to detect. Can be sign of cancer
hematemesis
bloody vomitus--bright red or "coffee grounds"
What amount of GI bleeding can cause cardiac + renal failure?
>1000 ml
What are blood test results in GI bleeding?
elevated BUN
Hct and HgB may not be decreased due to acute volume loss
melena
black, tarry, foul stool from digestion of blood
hematochezia
fresh, bright red blood from rectum
What can cause esophageal spasm, food regurgitation after eating, chest fullness, and aspiration pneumonia?
dysphagia
Tx for dysphagia
small frequent meals
surgery (dilatation)
What are some causes of GERD?
hiatal hernia, delayed gastric emptying, H. pylori
What is an esophagitis caused by GERD?
Barrett's esophagitis--squamous epithelium is replaced with columnar epithelium...can lead to cancer.
S/S of hiatal hernia are similar to what?
GERD--a hernia also causes gastroesoph. reflux
(treatment is same as well)
S/S of pyloric obstruction
early= vague fullness after eating
later= pain, nausea, copiu=ous vomiting few hours after eating--this has undigested food, but no bile. *cardinal sign*
ileus
paralysis of the intestines. Can be postoperative or due to opiods.
What are S/S of intestinal obstruction and ileus?
distended abdomen, colicky pain, vomiting, hyperactive bowel sounds above obstruction, and silence below it.
Causes of acute gastritis
>histamine from body due to inflammation
H. pylori, alcohol, medicine (NSAIDs)
treat cause to treat this
What is the cause of chronic gastritis?
loss of parietal cells--either from loss of parietal cells or H. pylori.