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27 Cards in this Set

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which diseases induce constipation?
- diabetes
- hypothyroidism
- multiple sclerosis
- parkinson's disease
- neoplasms
- IBS
which drugs induce constipation?
- antacids
- anticholinergics
- antidepressants
- opiates
- iron
- antihyperlipidenic agents
- benzodiazepines
- phenothiazines (CNS drugs)
- laxative abuse
what are the 6 types of laxatives?
bulk-forming
emollient
lubricant
saline
hyperosmotic
stimulant
what is the mechanism of bulk-forming laxatives?
it most closely resembles the natural physiological actions, forms non-absorbable mass in the gut when it mixes with water and results in a normal bowel movement
bulk-forming laxatives are indicated for which groups?
pts on low-residue diets, postpartum women, pts with colostomies, IBS, diverticular disease, those who should not strain stool
what are the adverse effects of bulk-forming laxatives?
choking
what are examples of bulk-forming laxatives?
polycarbophil-chemical hydrophilic agent- synthetic agent- Konsyl, Fiber-lax
methylcellulose- another chemical hydrophilic agent- Citrucel, swells up and forms a mass in the stomach
psyllium- natrually occurring hydrophilic agent, Metamucil, Serutan, Effer-syllium, Perdiem Fiber
Malt dextrin extract-syrup, better for children, Maltsupex
how long does it usually talk a bulk-forming laxative to work?
24 hrs
how does it take for an emollient laxative to work?
24-72 hrs
what are emollient laxatives?
surface active agents (detergents) that increase wetting efficiency of intestinal fluids, causing formation of a soft, wet, easy to pass fecal mass
what are the primary agents of emollient laxatives?
docusate sodium and docusate calcium
Is an emollient laxative indicated for pregnant women?
yes
what is an example of a lubricant laxative?
liquid petrolatum (mineral oil)
How long does it take for a lubricant laxative to work?
takes about 8 hours
what are saline laxatives?
non absorbable salts of magnesium and sodium
what do saline laxatives in the body?
casue the movement of fluid into the GI tract by osmosis, it causes increased intraluminal pressure and increased intestinal motility
how long does it take for saline laxatives to work?
30 min to 3 hrs after oral doses, 2-5 minutes after rectal administration
what is the primary indication for saline laxatives?
bowel cleansing prior to a surgery or procedure or following ingestion of a poison
what are examples of saline laxatives?
magnesium citrate (Citrate of Magnesia, Citroma)
magnesium hydroxide (Philips milk of magnesia)
sodium phosphate (fleet phospho soda and fleet ready to use enema)
magnesium sulfate (epsom salts)
what is glycerin?
it is a hyperosmotic laxative
how long does it take for glycerin to work?
30 minutes in suppository form
what is Miralax?
it is a hyperosmotic
what do stimulant laxatives to?
they increase peristatlic activity by causing local irritation of the intestinal mucosa and they may increase the secretion of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen
how long does it take stimulant laxatives to work?
8 hours
what are examples of anthraquinone stimulant laxatives?
cascara sagrada, casanthranol, senna, aloe, aloin, danthron, rhubarb, frangula
what are examples of diphenylmethanes stimulant laxatives?
miscellaneous one?
bisacodyl, phenolphthalein

miscellaneous castor oil
Metamucil is a brand of what?
psyllium (bulk forming)