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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Upper GI - Barium swallow
-x ray study
-uses contrast medium
-dx structural abnormality of esophagus and stomach
barium swallow: nursing responsibility
-contrast medium
-NPO 8-12 hrs before
-no smoking after midnight
-after, prevent impaction (laxatives, push fluids)
-stool may be white 72hrs after
Lower GI - barium enema
same as swallow, but rectal.
air infused after barium evacuated
barium enema: nursing responsibility
-clear bowel before (laxatives, enema)
-clear liquid diet prior
-NPO 8 hr before
-cramping/urge to defecate may occur
-after, push fluids, laxatives
-observe stool (passage of medium)
abdominal ultrasound
detects masses, assesses ascites
abd ultrasound: nursing
bowel must be clean
explain procedure
-visualizes whole colon
-fiberoptic scope
-pt position changed during procedure
-dx IBD, detect tumors, dilate strictures
-removal of colonic polyps
colonoscopy: nursing
-NPO 8 hrs, clear liquid diet 1-3 days
-laxatives 1-3 days before, enemas night before
-sedation given
-alternate 1 gal Goltely or Colyte before
-after, cramping
-check vitals
-check for rectal bleeding (malaise, distention)
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
visualize upper GI. may look at stomach motility, inflammation, ulcerations, tumors, varices, Mallory-Weiss tear
EGD: nursing
-NPO 8 hr
-signed consent
-pre-op med maybe (diazepam...)
-explain local anesthetic (throat) and sedation
-**after, NPO until gag reflex returns**, warm saline gargle
-check temp q 15-30min for 1-2 hr
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
-endoscope orally to descending duodenum, bile/pancreatic ducts
-contrast medium
-visualizes structures
-can retrieve gallstones, dilate structures, biopsy tumors
ERCP: nursing
-NPO 8 hrs
-consent form
-antibiotics if ordered
-after, check vitals, sign of perforation, infection
*pancreatitis most common complication
-check return of gag reflex
Gastric analysis
-acidity and volume
-NG tube, aspiration
fasting Normal acidity: 2.5
fasting normal vol: 62 ml/hr
-histalog and pentagastrin can speed it up

*NPO 8-12 hr
*withhold drugs affecting gastric secretion 24-48 hr
*no smoking that morning
serum amylase
-secretion of amylase by pancreas (dx acute pancreatitis)
-peaks in 24 hr then drops
*collect blood sample in acute pancreatitis attack
normal = 0-130
serum lipase
-secretion of lipase from pancreas
-stays elevated longer than amylase
normal = 0-160
fecal analysis
form, consistency, color
checks for blood, pus, mucus, parasites, fat
occult blood (guaiac, hemoccult, hematest)
*diet free of red mean 24-48 hr before
liver biopsy
-check coagg. (PT)
-vitals for baseline
-pt holds breath after expiration w/ needle insertion
-after, vitals q15min x 2
-lying on rt side 2 hrs
-lying flat 12-14 hr
-watch for bile peritonitis, shock, pneumothorax
dehydration labs
increased BUN
normal creatinine
liver palpation technique
left hand behind the back (11th & 12th ribs)
rt hand on pts rt abdomen lateral to rectus muscle
pt takes a deep breath