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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Irreversible steps in glycolysis
Pyruvate Kinase
Inhibition of F 2,6 BP (in liver) from…
F 2,6 BPase
Stimulated by glucagon
Removes PO3 from F 2,6 BP
(gives F 6 P for gluconeogenesis)
(removes F 2,6 from glycolys)
Inhibition of F 2,6 BP (in liver) from…
Inhibition of PFK 2 (in liver) from …
cAMP dependent
glucagon signal
How does glucagon signal affect PFK 2 & FBPase 2
cAMP, PKA, phosphorylate
PFK2 inhibited, FBPase2 activated
Inhibition of F 2,6 BPase
Removal of phosphate (insulin signal)
Stimulates glycolysis
Enzymes to bypass glycolysis steps
PCarboxylase & PEPCK (OAA to PEP)
F 1,6 BPase (F 1,6 BP to F 6 P)
G 6 Pase (G 6 P to Glucose)
Role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis
Generate NADH in cytosol
Pyruvate into mito
Convert to OAA
Convert to malate
Out to cytosol
Get NADH back when convert to OAA
Bypass of pyruvate kinase
Pyruvate carboxylase (Pyr to OAA)- ATP used
PEPCK (OAA to PEP)- GTP used
Bypass of PFK I
F 1,6 BPase
Hydrolyze off PO3
(Activated by ATP, inhibited by AMP- inhibits gluconeo if glycol is going)
NADH in mito used to make OAA comes from …
FA oxidation
Bypass of glucokinase
G 6 Pase
Hydrolyze off PO3
In lumen of ER in liver
Location of G 6 Pase
Only in lumen of ER in liver
Sources for carbon for gluconeogenesis
Lactate (working muscle)- Lactate dehydrogenase
Glycerol (FA breakdown)- glycerol kinase
aa’s – amino acid transaminase
Cycles for liver to help muscles
Cori cycle- recycles lactate during exercize
Glucose-alanine cycle- clears ammonia
Glucose – alanine cycle
To get rid of urea
Pyruvate can go to 2 alanine
Alanine back to liver
Back to pyruvate & lose NH3
Energy requirement for gluconeogenesis
12 ATP equivalents
Effect of Epi on PFK 2 and FBPase 2
In muscle PFK2 active, FBPase2 inactive
(glycolysis to run from tiger)
In liver PFK2 inactive, FBPase2 active
(gluconeogenesis to feed body)
Function of AMPK
Master regulator
Activated by AMP
When need rapid response to loss of ATP
AMPK inhibits
Protein synth
Glycogen synth
FA/Cholesterol synth
AMPK activates
Glucose uptake
FA oxidation
Mitochondrial biogenesis
MOA for metformin
Activates AMPK
Downregulates PEPCK (gluconeogenesis)

In muscle does insulin independent recruitment of GLUT 4
MOA of sulfanylurea
Stimulate Insulin release from beta cells
Inhibit K channels, prolonged depolarization
MOA of Exenatide
GLP 1 receptor agonist (injectible)
(glucagon like peptide)
Function of LKB
Activates AMPK in liver