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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 biggest allergies in kids?
1. Peanut

2. Egg

3. Milk

4. Wheat

5. Soy
What are the 2 types of adverse food reactions?
1. Food intolerance

2. Food Allergy
What are the 2 types of food intolerance?
1. Food characteristics

2. Host characteristics
What are the 3 types of food allergies?
1. IgE mediated

2. Mixed

3. Non IgE mediated
What is the primary presentation of IgE mediated symptoms?
Cutaneous reactions (hives, swollen lips, etc)
Is the presence of hives required for someone to have an allergic reaction?
What is the treatment for an allergic reaction?
Epinephrine and go to ED
What are the alpha adrenergic properties of epinephrine?
Vasoconstriction, increased BP, decreased capillary leak
What are the beta adrenergic properties of epinephrine?
Relax bronchial smooth muscle, increased HR, increase cardiac contractility
What is the overall pathogenesis of IgE anaphylaxis?
Allergen enters via GI tract

Th2 cell activated, activates IgE B cell and eosinophils

IgE antibodies activate mast cell to release mediators causing anaphylaxis symptoms
What are the 3 initial responses in anaphylaxis?
1. Vasodilation

2. Vascular Leakage

3. Smooth muscle spasm
To develop an allergy, must you see the allergen at one point?
To see allergen (to devo allergy), must allergen be sensitized from eating?
NO (could be breast milk, moisturizers, etc)
What is oral tolerance?
State of active inhibition of immune responses to an antigen by means of prior exposure to that antigen thru the oral route
What is the larges immunologic organ in the body?
GI tract
can antigens be made safe by cooking or thermal/chemical denaturation?
Yes, sometimes
What prevents the passage of macromolecules between cells?
Junctional complexes
What inhibits the absorption of antigens?
Mucus and secretory IgA
Normally, presentation of antigen by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) leads to what?
Inactivation or suppression of immune response
What is the potent APC found in the intestinal lamina propria, peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph node?
Dendritic Cells (DC's)
What is the function of dendritic cells?
Send dendrites into lumen and sample antigen directly
Which cells play a PIVOTAL role in directing balance between tolerance and active immunity?
T cells
DC interaction can also induce the differentiation of what cells?
Tr1 cells

TGF-B secreting cells

T reg cells
What is low dose tolerance?
Tolerance via repeated lower doses which activates TREG cells
What is high dose tolerance?
Tolerance via single high dose which leads to lymphocyte DELETION or ANERGY
High dose deletion can be blocked by what?
Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12
What causes hypersensitivity?
failure to develop, or a breakdown in, oral tolerance
What happens at the cellular level in hypersensitivity?
1. B cells produce food specific IgE antibodies

2. Cross linkage upon exposure

3. Causes release of primary and secondary mediators

4. Anaphylaxis
What is sensitization?
Development of oral tolerance later on
What % of kids in the US have a food allergy?
What is looked at in the lab to determine if someone is undergoing an allergic reaction?
Tryptase levels, NOT histamine
True/False, one must have hives in an IgE mediated reaction?
What are the 3 most common foods that cause allergic reactions in the US?
Nuts, egg, shellfish