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20 Cards in this Set

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products of HMP Shunt
R5P- pentoses for nucleotides

NADPH- reducing power
-FA synth
(VLDL secretion, TG storage, milkfat synth)
-cholesterol synth
-cholesterol homeostasis & bile salts
-protect against RO dmg
-NO synthesis (arginine)
-phagocytes
methemoglobin
produced 1-3% of Hgb
generates oxegyn rad
metHgb reductase removes
oxidizes RBC membranes
contains Fe3+ (not 2 like Hgb)
diaphorase
methemoglobin reductase
acquired methemoglobinemia
G6P Dh defeciency is cofactor in acquired methemoglobinemia
(heteros protected malaria)

from ingested oxidizing agents (naphalene, paraquat, primaquine, fava beans)
congenital methemoglobinemia
deficiency in metHgb reductase (diaphorase)

Met Hgb oxidizes RBC membranes
treatment for methemoglobinemia
(Fe3 back to Fe2)
methylene blue
electrons onto MB
uses HMP
nonenzymatic
RBC rxns requiring NADPH
(protective)
SOD (generates H2O2)
Catalase (gives H20)
Glutathione peroxidase (oxidizes reduced glutithione- uses selenium- GSH to GSSH/G- generates NADPH)
Glutathione reductase- keeps it reduced (generates NADP)
metHgb reductase
oxidation of Hgb
susceptible b/c SH gps (on cysteine)

problem in RBC

mixed disulfide formation damages membranes

forms Heinz bodies
Heinz body
from mixed disulfide formation
Hgb covalent bond to membrane
leads to pitting
pitting
spleen chops part of RBC b/c of mixed disulfide rxn)
killing reactions of NADPH
NADPH oxidase
-for oxygen burst
-cyto B5 & NADPH
-on ER
-produce NADP+ & ox rad
-CGD

SOD
-gen H2O2 (isoenzyme of RBC SOD)

Fenton Rxn (generate OH rad)
-Fe2


Myeloperoxidase (forms bleach)
NADPH oxidase
-for oxygen burst
-cyto B5 & NADPH
-on ER
-produce NADP+ & ox rad
-deficiency gives CGD
-test w/NBT
SOD
2 isoenzymes
in RBC causes damage
in phagocyte kills bug
makes H2O2 (for Fenton rxn)
Fenton reaction
nonenzymatic
uses Fe2+ (oxidizes to 3)
generates OH rad (most powerful radical)
kills parasite (via hole in membrane)
myeloperoxidase
produces bleach (hypochloris acid)
kills bugs
cytochrome enzyme
gives pus its color
chronic grannulomatous disease
deficient NADPH oxidase
test w/nitroblue tetrazolium NBT
turns blue when reduced (pos sign-enzyme functioning)
HMP shunt pathway
Oxidative:
G6P to R5P (2NADPH)

G6P Dh - gives 1 NADPH
lactonase
6 P glucanate Dh- gives 1 NADPH & ribublose 5 p
isomerase- gives ribose 5P

Non-Oxidative
transketolase - back to F6P
-thru triose, tetrose, heptose
transketolase
non oxidative pathway of HMP
returns ribose 5 P to F6P
via trisoe, tetros or heptose
thiamine dependent
easy to measure (in RBC)
good marker for thiamine def
protective reactions for NADPH
glutithione peroxidase
-removes H2O2
-produces reduced GSSH
-uses NADP+ (oxidized)
-generates H2O & O2

glutithione reductase
-regenerates reduced GSH
-uses NADPH (reduced)
sources of radicals in RBCs
SOD- H2O2 & O2
(Catalase removes to O2 &H2O)