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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
causes of fatty liver
-converts to ACoA (FA synth)
-can't make VLDL (b/c nutrients needed for pcholine & aa's neded for proteins)

insulin resistant adipose
-makes FFA's (instead of TGs)
-more FA delivered to hcyte
insulin induces lipogenic nz's
-increases production of FAs
activates pyruvate kinase & PDH (high NADH also drives)
ACoA pathways
TCA (for ATP)
Ketone bodies
FA synthesis
Cholesterol/bile salts
palmitic acid
in every tissue except breast (decanoic for milk)
decanoic acid
coconut milk & breast

(docosahexanoic C22:6)
oleic acid
makes adipose
precursor to arachadonic acid
alpha linolenic
FA at risk in hyperberic chamber
docosahexanoic acid

oxidize easily (ROS)
damage retina & cognition
Functions of FA
increase protein hydrophobicity (myristoic a)
precursor to ketone body
overall reaction in FA synthesis
ACoA & 7 malonylCoA to palmitic acid & 7CO2, 14 NADP, 8CoAsh

(takes 7 rounds)
malonyl CoA
ONLY found in FA synth
high energy compound
donates 2 C's (made of 3)
source of CO2
lipogenic enzyme family
ACoA carboxylase (malonyl CoA)
Citrate Lyase (OAA for transH & ACoA for FA)
FAS complex
P Carboxylase (for transH,pyruvate to OAA)
Malic Enzyme (NADP+ to NADPH)
G6PD (HMP shunt, w/6PG Dh)
reason for fat storage
doesn't require water (like glycogen)
fatty acid synthase complex
pantothenic acid
7 enzymes
ACP characteristic
reactive SH group for reactions to take place
FA synth process
get ACoA out of mito
(via citrate)
convert back to OAA in cytoplasm
-goes to malate (to regenerate pyruvate & NADPH)or ACoA (for FA synth)
generate malonyl CoA (from ACoA) for FAS
FAS complex
transhydrogenation pathway
citrate shuttle
-from TCA to cyto

citrate lyase to OAA & ACoA
-OAA to malate via malate Dh (gens NAD+)
-ACoA for FA substrate (via ACoA Dh)

malic enzyme
-NADPH (using H from C lyase)
-OAA to pyruvate

Pyruvate back to mito
-carboxylase (ABC) to OAA
isocitrate dehydrogenase
in TCA
blocked by feedback (ATP)
leads to increased citrate
(OAA + ACoA)
travels out to cyto for FA synth
citrate lyase
ATP driven
gives ACoA & OAA
induced by insulin
sources of NADPH for FA synth
HMP shunt
(G6PD & 6PGDh)
transhydrogenation pathway
(malic enzyme,NADH & NADP in cyto from glycolysis)
(pyruvate carboxylase (ABC) takes it back to OAA & regens malate)
4 ABC carboxylases
Pyruvate (OAA in cyto)
ACoA (malonyl CoA in cyto)
propionyl CoA (methylmal CoA, FA & aa deg)
methylcrotonylCoA (methylmalonyl CoA to Succ CoA)
Malate dehydrogenase
convert OAA to malate in transhydrogenation pathway
(gives NAD+ - or reverse in TCA)
ACoA carboxylase
uses biotin
gives malonylCoA from ACoA
for entry into FAS complex
signalled by citrate
malonyl CoA
VERY high energy
3 ATPs
FAS complex
condensing enzyme & ACP
ACP requires pantothenic acid
holds malonyl

elongation & condensation

thioesterase clips off palmitate
clips off palmitate from FAS complex
Acyl Carrier Protein
holds malonyl in FAS complex
medium chain thioesterase
in mammory gland
aborts FA synth
cleaves C10:0 using CoAsh
makes decanoyl
"intermediate chain FA"
travels w/o chylomicrons
straight into mitos
gastric lipase can digest