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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lipid storage
TAG's in adipose
droplets surrounded by perilipin
in cytosol
pathway with HSL
TAG mobilization in fat cell
with desnutrin (induced by glucocorticoids)
HSL induced by glucagon (phosphorylation via cAMP)
catalyzes rate-limiting rxn
converts DGs to MGs
pathway with desnutrin
TG mobilization from adipose
induced by glucocorticoids
catalyzes conversion from TG to DG
role of perilipin in FA oxidation
TAG mobilization
gets pore when phosphorylated
allows HSL in lipid droplet
TAG mobilization
glucagon or cortisol signal
phosphorylate perilipin & HSL (via PKA & ATP)
desnutrin cats TG to DG
HSL converts DG to MG
MG lipase converts to FFA + glycerol (fuel for gneogen)
carrier protein for FFA
effect of cortisol on TAGs
activate desnutrin (to produce DGs) via nuclear regulation
effect of glucagon on TAGs
phosphorylate catabolic pathways via cAMP & PKA
- perilipin (pore)
- HSL (DG to MG)
effect of insulin on TAGs
inactivate enzymes for mobilization (HSL & Pore in perilipin)
products (& uses) from beta oxidation
Acetyl CoA
- cholesterogenesis
- ketogenesis
- Activation of pyruvate carboxylase (generates OAA for gluconeogenesis & TCA- ABC enzyme)

ATP & NADH (PH for synth)
- to drive gluconeogenesis

ATP for cells in general
- esp heart & skel
- not RBC (no mito)

generates heat (brown fat, great vessels neonate)
beta oxidation occurs in
mitochondria of muscle (heart & skel) and liver

(synthesis in cytosol- glucose rxns in cytosol)
process for FA oxidation
liberate FAs from adipose
carry to liver (albumin)
in to mito(Carnitine)
acetylate (to keep in cell)
oxidation (removes 2 Cs per cycle)
odd chains use propionate to methylmalonyl CoA then succinyl CoA to TCA
unsaturated convert cis to trans then finish
fate of odd chain FAs
oxidated until propionate
carboxylated to methylmalonyl CoA
then succinyl CoA (w/B12)
to TCA
rate limiting enzyme for beta oxidation
acetyl CoA synthetases
60% at ER
20% at mito membrane
20% at peroxisomes
enzymes for FA oxidation
transport into mito
- Acyl CoA synthetase (traps)
- CPT 1 outer membrane
- CPT 2 inner membrane (mito catalyze synthetase)
- carnitine translocase
(transport in & out)

- ACoA Dh- gives enoyl CoA
(then hydrated to beta HA CoA)
- beta hydroxyacyl CoA
gives beta ketoacyl CoA
cleaved via CoASH
gives ACoA (returns for next FA)
hypoglycemia in Newborns
caused by
MCAD- deficient fatty acylCoA Dh
explains 50% of SIDS
characteristics of Carnitine
non essential
made in liver & kidney
from lysine & methionine
uses B6
babies can't make but get SCFAs from breast milk
acyl carnitine
high energy compound
transport form (to mito) of FA
seizure med that inhibits beta ox
valproic acid
resembles FA
liver conjugates to carnitine
less carnitine available
core reactions of beta oxidation
redox- ACoA Dh (FADH2)
hydration- enoyl hydratase redox- beta HA Dehydrogenase (NADH)
thiolytic cleavage- beta ketothiolase
characteristics of fatty acylCoA Dh rxn
oxidation rxn
fatty acylCoA to enoyl CoA
(double bond)
embedded in ETC
generates FADH2
only works if 2 H's on beta C
(if alc to ketone use NAD to NADH b/c oxidation)
energy available in a FA (equation)
(# C's/2)- 1
x 2 (FADH2)
x 3 (NADH)

# Cs/2
x 12 (ATP equivs from TCA)
ancillary rxns in beta oxidation
odd carbon dbl bond (oleic acid)
- delta 3,4 enoyl CoA isomerase & hydratase)
- moves dbl bond off of beta

even carbon double bond
- 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase
(uses NADPH) then isomerase

FAs w/CH3 on odd # Cs
-alpha hydroxylase
(removes carboxyl)
(uses O2, Fe & alpha KG)
-phytanoyl CoA lyase
(removes formyl CoA)
-generates propionyl CoA
-disorder is Refsum's
RQ for glucose
RQ for lipid
RQ for protein
Refsum's caused by
inability to oxidize FA w/odd C methyl gp (eg. Pytanic acid)

problem with alpha hydroxylase (in peroxisome)

Fe, O2, alphaKG, CoA
(not NADPH & O2)
Zellweger's Disease caused by
congenital peroxisomal (absence)disorder

accumulate VLCFA's
function of peroxisome in FA ox
VLCFA's can't do beta ox
(24 c or more)
into peroxisome
generate octanoyl CoA (8c's)
- to mito generate CO2 & H20

and ACoA
- to mito

uses ATP & CoASH
essential vitamin for carnitine synthesis
uses lyseine &/or methionine