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30 Cards in this Set

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Protestant Reformation
b/w 1100-1500; caused due to the religious upheaval in Europe. Roman Catholic Church defined what it meant to be a Christian, church officials sold indulgences, only popes/high officials could talk to God. People did not like being unsure about their religion, was a concern for salvation. Popes become more powerful = bureaucracy becomes more powerful = not concerned w/ religious concerns of common person/ corruption in church. Reformation effectively fragments Christianity in Western Europe; due to upheaval caused by this English delay in colonization in New World.
John Calvin
important figure in Reformation; believes in predestination/ central to Puritan faith of New England
Martin Luther
believes salvation comes by faith alone & becomes critical of Catholic Church. Wrote 95 Theses in 1517 (attacked church/ hierarchy) Claimed that everyone had the power that the priests had to talk w/ God.
Henry VIII’s daughter defends Protestantism
Sir Walter Raleigh was sent by Queen Elizabeth to colonize. He first did so in Ireland then was sent in search of colonization. 1585 he made his first effort- failed. 1587; 2nd expedition, Lost Island of Roanoke Colony. By 1590 the colony was gone. Realized it was a bad time to settle due to threat for attack.
very important from saving Jamestown and the Chesapeake colonies from complete disaster. This is when you pay passage of someone who comes over (indentured servant) to New World. For paying for someone you get a land grant (50 acres) in exchange. They did this b/c they had plenty of land but a lack of people
Pull factor
headrights system; encouraging people to come to new world
Push factor
make people want to leave old world behind. This happened due to many different reasons:
reasons for push factor
1. overpopulation in Europe- population reached a record high and there was a stress on resources
2. Enclosure- process of putting up fences (people who were tenets on someone’s land; shift from grain crop to sheep so needed to fence in land) from this they didn’t need as many people to man the farm and people were them displaced, homeless or vagrants. The new world attracted many of them b/c they would have a place to stay.
indentured servant
someone pays passage and you work it off after finite amount of time (not slavery but may feel like it) once free were to be given a new pair of clothes, maybe a little land.
important aspect of Chesapeake society; it was risky, the New World the people were concerned w/ individualism and greed therefore they did not help support each other as a community
Bacon's Rebellion
led by Nathaniel Bacon, he was denied by Governor Berkley to trade with the Indians so Bacon went and appealed to the poorer frontier neighbors (lower class) they slaughtered friendly and hostile Indian tribes and demolished Jamestown. Gov. Berkeley said Bacon was a rebel so Bacon and his forces turned against the Gov and his forces. The death of Bacon from dysentery put a halt to the rebellion
intensely spiritual, gives power to individual, strong intellectual appeal, strong social appeal; huge during Protestant Reformation (clear split b/w Prot. And Catholics); Puritan = Purge church of roman influences; want to institute more changes to church (simplify it) by ridding of church hierarchy and removing distractions; settle in New World for religious persecution
Utopian society (calling and covenant)
perfect society; 2 imp principles that underpinned this society were:
Covenant: idea of a social compact that binds community together; connects individual
Calling: society at its best when individual in it live out their calling (useful work)
devout Congregationalists; concluded that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed. Abandoned Anglican worship. Many suffered persecution from the government. Had to meet secretly to worship. Came to MA to settle.
Plymouth colony
established in 1620 from people from the Mayflower. Founded by Puritans.
MA bay colony
governor of colony was John Winthrop who wanted colony to be model for society (ideal/utopian society); General Court of the Colony created which passed laws, levied taxes, est. courts, etc. (own form of gov’t)
Glorious Revolution
bloodless coup in which Parliament forced King James II into exile in 1688 and placed his daughter on throne of England (Mary and husband William<William and Mary>) - she was a Protestant and agreed to rule w/ Parliament. In colonies she made MA and ME under gov appt by crown and property ownership was basis of voting rights not church membership
says state should regulate and protect industry and commerce; objective is to enrich the nation by creating a favorable balance of trade; role of colonies- to supply the mother country w/ raw materials and markets. State regulated; used to enforce overseas settlements (colonies exist to make mother country wealthy)
Navigation Acts
1. Navi. Act of 1660: gave British ship owners and merchants a MONOPOLY on shipping and marketing of all colonial goods to and from New World
2. Staple Act of 1663: gave England MONOPOLY on sale of manufactured goods to colonies and required colonies to buy manufactured goods from England
3. Plantation Duty Act of 1673: required all colonial ship captains to pay duty on ANY “enumerated commodities: that were not delivered to England
Parliament enforced Navigation Acts by:
1. enlarging number of customs officials in colonies
2. establishing colonial vice-admiralty courts to try violators
3. through the British navy
4. creating the Board of Trade in 1686: appt by monarchy; agency that is supposed to run colonies from England in colony (enforce rules/ imperial control)
direct v virtual represntation
Direct: representative had to live in the district and the colony that he was elected to represent.
Virtual: all people, whether they voted or not, were virtually represented by the very fact of their being English
legititmate v illegitimate authority
Legitimate: are trade regulations, royal governors, and veto acts by colonial assemblies
Illegitimate: taxation w/o representation, denial of trial by jury (in vice-admiralty courts)
Great Awakening
deepened the influence of older forms of Protestant Christianity (specifically Calvinism); heightened religious divisions among Americans. First stirrings were among Presbyterians and Congregationalists- many preached “evangelical” messages like John Edwards. The most influential speaker of the awakening was George Whitefield. He turned the church into a theatre which appealed to all classes, ethnic groups and races. After the Great Awakening Whitefield’s sermons drew up controversy among religious groups b/c people began to criticize their ministers. From this the colonials were more divided among sects like Pres., Congreg., Quakers, Anglican and Baptist. Only thing they all had in common was that they all liked being English.
Albany Congress
150 Iroquois Indians w/ 25 representatives from the colonies joined together to deepen their friendship. Met in Albany, NY (Gov. James DeLancey) worked for unity. With each promise to the Indians from the Europeans, the Indians got a present.
Wars continued b/w mainly France and Britain (King William’s War, “cold war”, King George’s War) Both wanted control over trade. To deal w/ crisis of these 2 warring countries, Benjamin Franklin wrote a cartoon in the PA Gazette of a snake cut into pieces w/ words “join or die.”
*prove one thing, it was that American colonials were hopelessly divided.
Albany plan of union
Franklin proposed a framework for colonial cooperation.
He proposed “1 general gov’t” for British North America, a federal council of
Reps from all colonies presided over by a president-general appointed by the
Crown. Council would assume all responsibility for colonial defense and
Indian policy…no one approved the plan :(
7 years war
1755-1763; aka French and Indian War, Britain v France; began over the Ohio River Valley…led to Washington’s surrender at Fort Necessity (1754). So in 1755, British troops led by Gen. Braddock approached French outpost at Fort Duquesne…defeated. French strengthened through help of new general Louis Joseph de Montcalm. For help British looked for strongest tribes- Iroquois and Cherokee. To help British, William Pitt took personal control over the war; thus the Indians changed their allegiance to the British side. British gained Quebec. 1763- Treaty of Paris ended the war giving the British all French and Spanish territory.
After war: Colonials thought they would get more control over land and prosper but Britain didn’t believe they were loyal/concerned through war w/ gaining land so they imposed taxes to pay for the war (most English colonials expected to have more of an equal status but that was not granted…people began to sway their loyalty from England)
Proclamation of 1763
issued by England’s Board of Trade, prohibited white settlement past the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. This was also thought to gain Indians trust because colonists were not allowed to push out west.
Imperial Crisis
costly war so empire needed to consolidate its gains; centralize. Britain left a standing army in America after war in order to prevent France from regaining territory. Led to Proclamation of 1763, Pontiac’s Rebellion (tribes tried to resist white settlement), and numerous wars including American Revolution. Britain also passed a variety of acts that made colonists pay taxes (sugar, stamp, Townsend) and built up a colonial bureaucracy through American Board of Customs Commissioners and expanding the number of Vice-admiralty cts….Result: this was a series of actions and reactions that ended in the American Revolution.
Sugar Act of 1764
aka Revenue Act; lowered the duty on foreign molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence a gallon. George Grenville (lord of treasury) intended to enforce this act and prosecute smugglers