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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Gerontology study of aging process encompasses physical emotional legal intellectual economic social environmental and sychological dynamics of the process
1 in 8 Americans 65 or older by 2020 1 in 5 increase demand for individuals sgerontological education and skills
4 reasons
1st because we want to know what is normal which products true what to believe
2nd reason we are caregivers we make decisisons about their driving,living independently, have enough money, getting care, being swindled, ability to care for themselves, friends.
scientists learning about what happens normally with age what is disease related
gerontological knowledge increasingly needed used by pros parapros prepare to adapt professional skills to help people with age-specific issues home health aide, social worker physician
an aging of the nation
leads to societal developments of interest to all ages most experience aging through parents and grandparents
rising numbers will impact many areas of society health care social services income maintenance programs corporate benefits ads new products community facilities and politics****
elders contribute to society through employment*** volunteerism and ploitical leadership
gerontology study of processes of aging gero=elders aging begins before birth
gerontology includes perspectives of disciplines concerned with physical mental and social aspects of life
gerontology includes studies of physical body intellectual ability personality family relations employment and retirement economics later life government programs crimes ethical issues of extending life housing arrangements health care mental health volunteerism community programs
gerontology specialties developing in law corrections community studies human services lirary sciences counseling education business housing and government
Geriatrics specialty within fields like medicicne pharmacy nursing dentistry clinical social work includes study of health and disease and care andtreatment of older persons
gerontology and geriatrics differing emphases but have goal of understanding aging so persons can be helped to maximize functioning and achieve highest quality of life
3 categories of old
includes persons act middle aged involved in social, leisure activities, employed volunteer family responsibilities interested in personal growth engaged in life and community
in a transition period beginning to accumulate chronic conditions request assistance from family, community service agencies can participate in life need support in transportation shopping cleaning personal care they comprise large growing market for health related products home-delivered services
somewhat dependent for carrying out daily activities maybe mental physical deterioration require care from family members or institutions may become financial service burden to family and health care system
chronological age not accurate when used to predict level of health activity intellectual functioning of individual
young-old old-old oldest-old useful in discussion of elderly
aging process 4 ways
chronological number of birthdays
biological functional capacity
psychological sensory mental personality
social age society's roles and expectations
expected age limit is 79 for women and 72**** for men expected to increase
growth in life expectancy occurred because of reduction in childhood diseases****
acute diseases less likely to kill people than in the past more like to die of chronic**** diseases in old age
increase in life expectancy resulted in substantial increase in size of older pop and proportion of total pop that is old
65+pop increased from 4% in 1900 to 12.4%**** in 2000
35 million individuals
76 million baby boomers will reach 65 in the next 15-20 years
fastest growing segment of pop is over age 85***
an increase from .2% of pop in 1900 to 1.5% in 2000 4,239,587
oldest-old represent 10% of 65+ pop young-old 58% by 2050 oldest-old will represent 22% of total older pop
centenarians over 100 increase from 61,000 to 100,000 by 2050
by 2020 52,067,000 over 65 17.7% of pop 85+ pop will reach 6,651,000 2.3% by 2050 85+ pop will reach 15,287,000 5.1%
median age of overall pop 1970 median age 28 1990 median 33 2000 median age 36
2010 median age 40
ethnic minorities make up 15% of older pop minority older groups will increase faster than will whites
8% of blacks now 65+ fastest growing segment of black pop
Hispanics fastest growing minority aged group currently 4.7% 65+ but will rise
64% age 65+ completed high school young-old more highly educated than the old-old approximately equal to youngers
every month net number of over 60 in the world increases more than 1,000,000 70%**** developing countries
all areas of world increases median age and numbers of older people
1980 259 million
2025 will be 761 million
Africa and South Asia approximately 3% of pop over 65 by 2025 only 28% will reside in developed countries
developed nations low fertility**** rates compared with developing countries dependency ratio lower in these countries
Japan 4.5**** workers for each old person today
dependency ratio expected to drop to 2 workers per old person by 2030
China has largest number of old people but Sweden has highest percentage
worldwide increase in older pop have effects on SS systems costs of health care and social services pension**** programs
incentives will be needed to promote later retirement allowing more immigration of younger persons potential solution increase proportion of younger individuals lowering dependency ratio
by 2000 13.7% total world pop
old-old increase faster than young old
older women likely to be widows older men likely married
oder men living alone will have needs
older women received services and children
increase in older age groups increase in number of generations still alive
disparity within country or regions of country in proportion of older persons
interest in extension of youth and prolonging life skin creams face lifts exercise clubs fad diets
fear of aging=ageism or sterotyping older pop discrimination
examples of discrimination
wrinkled old prune
crotchety old man
set in their ways
can't teach an old dog etc
talks about health problems too much
mistaken beliefs about older people example
unusual if active and good health different from rest of pop mentally incompetent inefficient should not be in work force
socially isolated from families physically socially economically disadvantaged
frequently accepted by older people influence self-view
chronic pulmonary disease
pressure sores
senility Alzheimer's
stroke high blood pressure
vision/hearing loss
Prostate problems
men 50 and older need urologist
Alzheimer's disease***
not normal development in aging includes gradual loss of memory decline ability perform routine tasks disorientation difficulty in learning loss of language skills impaired judgment personality changes so severe resulting in death can last 3-20 years average 8
affects 4 million older than 65 can occur in 40's and 50's links between genes
AD manifests slowly and subtly first mild forgetfulness forget recent events names or things
as disease advances symptoms serious enough help needed as disease progresses problems speaking understanding reading writing may become anxious aggresive may need total care
many have good eyesight into 80's and beyond but age brings changes that weaken eyes
slow loss of ability see close objects small print after 40 corrected with glasses
tiny spots or specks float across field of vision noticed in well-lit rooms outdoors normal may warn of retinal detachment with light flashes
Dry eyes
tear glands don't make enough tears or poor-quality tears itching burning use humidifier in home or special eye drops
too many tears sensitive to light wind temp changes may be eye infection or blocked tear duct
cloudy areas in part or all eye lens keep light from passing through lens loss of eyesight can be removed take off clouded lens put in plastic lens
too much fluid pressure inside eye lead to vision loss if treated early can be controlled
Retinal disorders****
leading couse of blindness in US thin lining on back of eye made of cells
retinal disorders
age-related macular degeneration
diabetic retinopathy
retinal detachment
age-related macular degeneration
macula millions of cells sensitive to light makes vision possible from center of eye sometimes can be treated with lasers
diabetic retinopathy
small blood vessels stop feeding retina properly early blood vessels leak fluid distorts sight later new vessels grow send blood into center of eye laser can prevent blindness
Retinal detachment
inner and outer layers of retina become separated surgery or laser treatment can reattach retina bring back all or part of eyesight
tissue lines eyelids covers cornea becomes inflamed cause itching burning tearing feeling of something in eye can be infection or allergies
Corneal**** diseases and conditions
cause redness watery eyes pain reduced vision or halo effect
cornea clear dome-shaped window at front of eye focuses light enters eye disease infection injury toxic agents other things can damage
cornea treatments changing glasses eye drops surgery corneal transplantation restore eyesight when hurt injury disease replaced by donated cornea
eyelid problems****
different diseases conditions
eyelids protect eye distribute tears limit light pain itching tearing sensitivity
drooping eyelids ptosis
blinking spasms blepharospasm
inflamed outer edges blepharitis
Temporal arteritis****
arteries in temple area forehead swollen headache pain when chewing tenderness
followed by sudden vision loss shaking weight loss low-grade fever early treatment prevents vision loss
low vision aids
stronger than regular eyeglasses include
telescopic glasses lenses filter light magnifying glasses electronic devices that can be held or placed on reading material
Fungal and Bacterial conditions occur in shoes warm dark humid perfect for fungus
causes dry skin, redness, blisters itching and peeling can be hard to cure may reoccur
Dry skin*****
causes itching and burning use mild soap moisturizingf cream lotion every day
Corns and calluses****
friction, pressure bony parts rub with shoes
use shoes that fit better
treating corns, calluses may be harmful if diabetes or poor circulation
skin growths caused by viruses see doctor for meds, burn or freeze or surgery
joints in big toe don't fit together become swollen tender wear wide shoes, pads, physical therapy, orthotic devices shoe inserts anti-inflammatory drugs and cortisone injections
Ingrown toenails
when piece of nail breaks skin cut nailss properly common in large toes cut straight across and level
shortening of tendons control toe movements toe knuckle enlarged drawing toe back stiffens rubs against shoes
balance may be affected wear shoes stockings with plenty of toe room treatment for hammertoe
calcium growths on bones caused by muscle strain standing bad shoes overweight make spurs worse treatments foot supports heel pads heel cups sometimes surgery
60% all victims of health-ccare fraud are older people older people as group have more chronic illnesses than younger
Quacks offer
say their products stop or reverse aging but cannot slow aging process
not smoking nutrition exercise help prevent diseases
Arthritis Remedies
symptoms come and go association with remedy with relief have bought seawater extracts from New Zealand green-lipped mussels chinese herbal meds
true relief comes from drugs heat rest exercise surgery
Cancer cure
dangerous diets Laetrile
by using unproven methods patients lose valuable time to receive proven effective therapy reduces chance for controlling curing disease
1/3 65-74*** and 1/2 85 and older have hearing problems can be small missing certain sounds or large total deafness
some may not admit so if ignored untreated can get worse get depressed withdraw to avoid frustration embarrassment some call elders confused unresponsive uncooperative because don't hear well
Hearing Problems
loss can be caused by loud noises over long period time, viral or bacterial infections heart conditions stroke head injuries tumors meds heredity changes in ear as aging process
family doctor or otolaryngologist*** ear nose throat head neck
audiologist**** identifies and measures hearing loss use audiometer different pitches loudness no drugs/surgery
Presbycusis over age 50 lose hearing each year decline slow
hearing diseases disorders ringing roaring other sounds may be ear wax ear infection too much aspirin antibiotics nerve disorder
Conductive hearing loss
sounds from ear drums tympanic membrane to inner ear blocked
ear wax in canal fluid in middle ear bone growth middle ear infection
Sensorineural**** hearing loss
damage to parts of inner ear or auditory nerve
degree of loss varies can be caused by birth defects head injury tomors illness meds poor blood pressure stroke
High Blood Pressure
blood flows from heart out to vessels creates pressure aganinst vessel walls*** reading is measure of this pressure
when reading above certain point high blood pressure/hypertension/HBP
50 million*** with HBP
65+ 40%**** whites 50% blacks have HBP
upper or systolic number high lower or diastolic normal
called systolic hypertension
lowering systolic number cuts down on strokes heart attacks 60+ persons
kills cells in your immune system weakened so you get life-threatening diseases infections cancers called AIDS
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome most advanced stage of HIV infection
no symptoms when first infected with HIV sometimes few weeks for flu-like symptoms sometimes 10 years more serious symptoms
headache chronic cough diarrhea swollen glands lack of energy loss of appetite weight loss frequent fevers sweats yeast infections skin rashes pelvic abdominal cramps sores short-term memory loss over 50 may not recognize HIV symptoms think they are aging
10% or 75,000 diagnosed with AIDS age 50+
older know less about HIV/AIDS condoms/needles testing
health care workers educators neglected middle age and older pop
doctors don't ask older patients about sex/drug use don't recognize symptoms in older people
age 50+ may have the virus for years before testing may be in most advanced stages
older people with HIV/AIDS isolation afraid to tell friends/family more depressed won't join support groups need help coping emotionally and physically
as infection progresses need help getting around and care taking care of someone with HIV/AIDS CAN BE stressful hard
Common Tests in Elderly
Mammogram***** risk of breast cancer increases with age 80% breast cancers in women over 50 x-ray too small to feel over 40 mammogram every 1-2 years
Fecal Occult Blood Test******
colorectal cancer 3rd cause of death from cancer risk rises after 50 men and women test every 1-2 years 50-80 decreases deaths due to colorectal cancer
thin flexible tube with light ssigmoidoscope look inside colon and rectum for growths 50+
Pap test******
cancer of cervix increases with age doctor uses wooden scraper small brush collect sample of cells from cervix upper vagina
Digital Rectal Exam
prostate cancer 80% men 65+ feels prostate gland for bumps abnormal areas
Prostate Specific Antigen PSA
measures PSA in blood-stream indicate prostate cancer cells may be high when no cancer present