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5 Cards in this Set

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Augustine of Hippo,
The Pear-theft
St Augustine is known for having framed the concept of original sin and evil derived from free will. He was born around 354 CE into wealth (and apparently sin) in Africa. He repented and converted to Christianity. Before his death around 430 CE, he wrote of stealing pears from an orchard as a youth. He attributed this act of sin for the sake of sin to free will--and by extention, original sin to free will as well.
One book of the Hebrew Bible, relating the story of a true believer named Job whose faith was put to the test by various misfortunes and evils. He does not lose his faith, but does ask why evil exists---Hiobsfrage, or Job's question. This is never truly answered by God in the book or the larger works, and connects to the problem of evil.
Manichaeism presents the idea of the moral conflict between the spiritual world of light and the material world of darkness. which takes place with the human soul. Both sides of the struggle emanate from the same source. Dualism is the broader notion of the universe being defined by opposites, i.e. two categories.
The Problem of Evil
If a three-o god (one who is all three of those traits at once) exists, why is there evil? This is the problem of Evil: the inherent contradiction between a 3-o god (such as presented by Scripture), and the existance of evil.
G. W. Leibniz
An attempted answer to the Problem of Evil, as attributed to Leibniz. In essence, justification or explanation of God's actions--the evil of the world does not contradict God, as it is the best possible of all worlds.