• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/48

Click to flip

48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Epidermis
Surface ectoderm
Hair
Surface ectoderm
Nails
Surface ectoderm
Inner and external ear
Surface ectoderm

(but NOT middle ear)
Tooth enamel
Surface ectoderm

(but NOT odontoblasts and the dentin they produce)
Lens of eye
Surface ectoderm
Anterior Pituitary
Surface ectoderm

(Rathke's pouch from oral ectoderm that grows upward)
Parotid Gland
Surface ectoderm
Mammary Glands
Surface ectoderm
Anal canal below the pectinate line
Surface ectoderm
Central Nervous System
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube
Retina and optic nerve
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube

(The optic nerve is an outgrowth of the CNS and therefore covered not only by oligodendrocytes but all three meningeal layers. As a result it can fall victim to pathologies of any of those structures. Ex: Multiple Sclerosis)
Pineal Gland
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube
Neurohypophysis (Posterior Pituitary)
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube - it is a downward outgrowth of the CNS
Astrocytes
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube

(The only glial cells that are not neuroectodermal in origin are microglia which are derived from monocytes that migrate to the CNS at birth)
Oligodendrocytes
Neuroectoderm of the neural tube

(The only glial cells that are not neuroectodermal in origin are microglia which are derived from monocytes that migrate to the CNS at birth)
Adrenal Medulla
Neural Crest

(The adrenal medullary cells - chromaffin cells - are basically modified post-synaptic sympathetic ganglion cells. Presynaptic (preganglionic) neurons release acetylcholine onto chromaffin cells, eliciting release of catecholamines (especially epinephrine) into the blood, rather than releasing norepinephrine onto a synapse)
Ganglia (Both pseudounipolar sensory ganglia (DRG) and postganglionic autonomic ganglia)
Neural Crest
Pigment cells (Melanocytes)
Neural Crest

(This is why neurofibromatosis --> cafe au lait spots)
Schwann Cells
Neural Crest
Leptomeninges (Pia and Arachnoid only)
Neural Crest

(The Pia and Arachnoid are derived from the neural crest. The Dura, however, is derived from mesoderm)
Pharyngeal Arch Cartilage
Neural Crest
Odontoblasts
Neural Crest

(But remember, the enamel of teeth is derived from surface ectoderm)
Parafollicular Cells of the Thyroid
Neural Crest

(Compare to the follicles of the thyroid which are endodermal in origin)
Aorticopulmonary Septum
Neural Crest

(Defects in migration --> Tetralogy of Fallot)
Endocardial Cushions
Neural Crest

(Problems in migration --> VSDs and A/V valvular defects, as in Down Syndrome)
Muscle
Mesoderm

(Smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle are all derived from mesoderm)
Connective Tissue
Mesoderm
All serous membranes
Mesoderm

The epithelial layer (mesothelium) is a SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM which produces lubricating serous fluid. These cells are bound tightly to the underlying connective tissue, which provides the blood vessels and also serves as the binding layer which allows the whole serous membrane to adhere to organs and other structures.

Do not confuse serosa with adventitia - which, rather than reducing friction between structures, adheres them to one another.
Bone and cartilage
Mesoderm

Exceptions: pharyngeal arch cartilage which is derived from neural crest cells and produces the mandible and bones of the ear.
Blood, Lymph and cardiovascular organs
Mesoderm

Do not get confused by the fact that blood vessels and the heart are lined with endothelium.
Adrenal Cortex
Mesoderm

(Contrast with the adrenal medulla which is of neural crest origins)
Gonads and internal reproductive organs
Mesoderm

(In females, the lower vagina is derived from endoderm, similarly to the bladder and urethra)
Kidney and Ureter
Mesoderm

(In addition, the region of the bladder where the ureters enter the bladder, the trigone, is also mesodermal)
Dura Mater
Mesoderm

(Unlike the leptomeninges, which are derived from neural crest. Think of the dura as being one with the bone which is also mesodermal)
Nucleus Pulposus of the spinal column
Notochord mesoderm

This means that many structures in the spinal column are mesodermal: The vertebrae, the nucleus pulposus between them, and the dura mater

The anulus fibrosus is also mesodermal (fibrocartilage)
GI epithelia
Endoderm

Note that smooth muscle and connective tissue are mesodermal
Lower respiratory tract epithelium (larynx, trachea, bronchi and lung)
The lower respiratory tract begins as an outgrowth of the gut endoderm - the respiratory diverticulum)

Note that the smooth muscle, connective tissue and cartilage are all mesodermal
Genitourinary epithelium (Bladder, urethra, and lower vagina)
Endoderm

An exception to this is the trigone of the bladder which is mesodermal. The upper vagina is also mesodermal.
Auditory tube and middle ear
Pharyngeal pouch endoderm
Palatine Tonsils
Pharyngeal pouch endoderm
Parathyroid Glands
Pharyngeal pouch endoderm

The thyroid follicles are also endodermal in origin. The only exception in the thyroid is the Parafollicular (C-cells) which are of neural crest origins.

Note: In DiGeorge Syndrome you see CATCH-22 due to deletions on chromosome 22q:

Cardiac Abnormality (especially tetralogy of Fallot)
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia
Cleft palate
Hypocalcemia
Thymus
Pharyngeal pouch endoderm

Note: In DiGeorge Syndrome you see CATCH-22 due to deletion on chromosome 22q:

Cardiac Abnormality (especially tetralogy of Fallot)
Abnormal facies
Thymic aplasia
Cleft palate
Hypocalcemia
Liver parenchyma
Endoderm
Pancreatic parenchyma
Endoderm
Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Glands
Endoderm

(Compare to the parotid gland which is derived from surface ectoderm)
Follicles of Thyroid Gland
Endoderm

(Note: The thymus, thyroid parenchyma, and parathyroids are all endodermal. The C-cells of the thyroid, however, are of neural crest origins)
Spleen
Mesoderm

Think of the spleen as an extension of the cardiovascular system. The heart, major blood vessels and blood are all mesodermal.