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12 Cards in this Set

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Which age category of the elderly is at highest risk for adverse drug reactions?
Elders, over the age of 65. 51% of all adverse drug reactions occur in elders. (Elders are about 12% of population)
What characteristics about elders increase their risk for adverse drug effects? (4)
Frail, marginal diets, multiple medical problems, and on multiple meds.
What is normal biologic aging called?
Senescence
What are 5 elements of senescence that occur?
1. Slowing down of functions such as glomerular filtration and metabolism.
2. Less body water
3. More body fat, less muscle
4. Decreased number of certain specialized cells
5. Basal tissue and organ changes resulting in overall decreased ability to respond to stress.
What is the most significant factor that we look at in drug kinetics?
Excretion. If kidney's can excrete drug, it is prolonged in the body and can cause toxicity.
Which drug classes are the most frequent causes of falls in the elderly? (3)
1. Antipsychotics
2. Antidepressants
3. Sedative-Hypnotics

Taking dieuretics at night.
Urinary incontinence is frequently caused by...
diuretics
What type of drugs cause the most confusion?
Anti-cholinergics.
What are two types of drugs that would contribute to the dehydration of elders?
Laxatives and diuretics
What is required upon admission to a nursing facility?
Geriatric Patient Assessment
Aside from drugs, what else can contribute to elderly falls?
Physical and psychological trauma resulting from a fall can lead to a self-imposed FEAR of falling
What concerns do we have related to aging/elders and them taking drugs?
Pharmacokinetic changes put them at greater risk for clinically significant variations in the way medications are handled by their bodies. More adverse reactions and toxicities. Should always start with lower doses and increase slowly.