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60 Cards in this Set

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Pediment Pass
pediment with no residual knob left; only flat, gently sloping surface
Alluvial fan
landform formed as a stream exits an area of high relief and enters a broad flat plain.
Flat depositional surface where many individual alluvial fans meet.
dry lake bed
triangular shaped protuberance in the shoreline which forms when a river meets a large body of water.
Cycle of Erosion
Youth- steep
Mature- less steep
Old Age- flat
Old-age flat erosional feature is the END PRODUCT of cycle erosion
Lateral Planation
meandering river goes back to the process of meandering back and forth flattening out an area.
Fluvial terraces
formed by something perturbing the system resulting in incision leaving areas to the side outside the areas of erosion
Cut-in bedrock terrace
erosional surface
Fill terrace
constructed by deposition, river incises into new level and then fills.
Cut and fill terrace
river meanders back and forth creating deposition, then cuts down through it and, while cutting, fills it back up.
Cyclic erosional surface
similar to a pediment, relics of former flood plain, now dissected.
Stripped strctural surface
surface formed by selective stripping of the low resistance surface from high resistance rocks leaving behind a low relief plane.
Entrenched meander
due to uplift around a meander, the meander is stuck in it's course
volume of void space/total volume
3 Spaces for Porosity
Intergranula spaces
Solution Cavities
Primary porosity
poristy before any changes to a rock (fractures)
Secondary porosity
porosity after alteration to a rock
how tightly packed grains are within a rock
relative size of grains within a rock
ease at which fluids travel through a rock
Specific yield
ratio of volume of water that is drained by gravity from saturated sediments to the total volume of the material
Specific retention
ratio of volume of water retained after draining by gravity to total volume
Porosity =
specific yield + specific retention
Hydraulic conductivity
volume of water at a given viscosity that will move in a porous medium in a unit time under a unit hydraulic gradient through a unit area measured at right angles to the plane
Darcy's law
Q= discharge
P= hydraulic conductivity (m/s)
I= hydraulic gradient
A= cross-sectional area (m^2)
Water table
upper surface of zone of saturation
Zone of saturation
subsurface area in which all porosity is filled
geologic unit that can store and transmit economic quantities of water
Unconfined aquifer
extends continuously from a land surface downward through a material with high permeability
Confined aquifer
bound both above and below with impermeable or nearly impermeable layers
Artesian aquifer
aquifer under enough pressure that, if allow to connect to surace, water would flow freely to surface
Thermal spring
groundwater becomes heated to high temperatures due to a heat source in the surface
Karst topography
formed by dissolution

characterized by:
Underground drainage
Types of Sinkholes
Solution sinkhole
Collapse sinkhole
compound sinkhole
large closed depression with flat alluvial fill
Karst lake or Sinkhole Pond
Karst lake intersects the groundwater table
Solution chimney
dissolving of limestone walls along fissures or bedding planes that are structurally controlled
Vertival shafts
circular cylinders with vertical walls that cut across fissures and bedding planes
Disappearing stream
river flows into karst features underground
Karst valley
valley where large percent of drainage is underground
Dry valley
remnant valley with all present drainage underground
Pocket valleys
fluvial valley that abruptly ends at a sinkhole
Blind valleys
valley flows away from a sinkhole
Coast of submergence has...
lots of estuaries
Tidal flat
areas that are submerged during high tide (mud-flat)
Coral reefs
predominantly found in temperatures between 77 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit
first to model how an atoll (ring of reef around a lagoon) formed
Fringing reef
form around a seamount (less than 60m)
big integrated root system of trees captures sediment
masses of ice or granular snow formed by compaction or recrystallization of snow lying largely or wholly on land and showing evidence of past or present movement
line between snow and ice (recrystallized snow)
Pressure melting
under great pressure, ice can melt and still have temerature of <0 degrees C
melting and refreezing due to changes in pressure
Glacial Movement Mechanisms
Basal sliding
Plastic flow
Compressive flow
Extending flow
Basal sliding
glacier slides over it's bed

meltwater is extremely important
Plastic flow
Intergranular shifting- movement taken place by rotating of crystal grains within a glacier

Intragranular shifting- crystals of ice are sheared (break parallel to movement)

Recrystallization- pressure melting important- ice melts and then refreezes down-slope
Compressive flow
decrease veolicty, ice thickness