Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
debri slope
sandy, evenly graded slope without strata found below free faces, think grand canyon
recieves sed. from debri slopes, maintain grade over time because of balanced inflow and outflow of seds.
Nose Slope
topographic point where water diverges 3 ways away from it. where least erosion occurs.
Broad regional scale
volcanoes, mtn building along convergent boundaries
when a meandering river is uplifted rapidly causing the river to cut straight down into channel
Superposed Rivers
When uplift occurs slowly river stays put and cuts through rising feature.
Relative Dating
1. older vs younger
2. sequence (oldest to youngest)
3. Magnitude
4. Calibrated age dating - aged based on other surfaces.
desert pavement
sand fills in between rocks and lifts the rocks
varnished rocks
bacteria live on rocks that fix manganese to the surface as a defense against sunlight
Soil development
1. more horizons with time
2. thicker solum wiht time
3. redder in color over time
establishes the last time sediment was exposed to sunlight or fire
Radiocarbon dating
radiocarbon years are shorter than calendar years. 20 year old trying to get in the bar could say theyre 21 in radiocarbon years.
Mesa/ Scarp
steeper faces form on resistant rock, gentle slopes on erodible (think grand canyon)
gently dipping sedimentary rock from upwarp in a dome or basin. in basins scarps backwaste toward center facing out, in domes scarps face in.
Land form names with respect to dip of the form
mesa< buttes< cuesta < hogbacks < flatirons < razorbacks
weak rocks, shales, siltstones, ashlayers. fine grain seds cause massive runoff with little infiltration. flat lying, highly jointed, weak seds
Bryce Canyon
square joints that weather outward. falling water forms canyons in joints as well as ice wedging
large spires with caprock, as formed in bryce canyon
Balanced rocks
form from sand abrasion from wind. when it tilts one way it compacts the rock decreasing the eroision, other side erodes until it tilts back.
basin of internal drainage, sediment washes to the center without a river draining it, water evaporates out.
central salt plain after water evaporates form a bolson
rock debri fallen from above
remnants of alluvial fans with many incisions where remnants of alluvial fan are rounded off.
coalesced apron of alluvial fans along front of mountain
island of rock in infilling basin

_____/ \_____________-
rounded off inselberg usually made of granite
vertical jointed inselberg
cinder cone volcano
formed from ejecta, small, steep sided, sharp jagged edged glass framents
composite cone volcano
felsic lava, tall volvanoes, viscous lava causes massive explosive eruptions
nuee ardante
glowing gas cloud that is heavier than air so it roars downslope
all unconsolidated materials above the bedrock
material weathered from a rock still in place, all residuum is regolith, not vice versa
weathered bedrock, retaining rock character/ fabric. contains quartz veins, dikes, stratigraphy
shattered angular rock fields near glacial margins that were exposed to ice
weathering with carbonic acid
H20+CO2-> H2CO3
CaCO3+H2CO3<-> Ca2+ + 2(HCO3)-
Relict Paleosol
Very old paleosol that was never buried
Exhumed Paleosol
was buried, overlying surface eroded away
smallest channel flows that form after sheet flows. channel extension is headward (upslope) as top of channel erodes out
drainage density
length of stream channel/ basin areas
trellis drainage
long trunk stream with many feeder streams off sides. occur between parallel mountians
effluent streams
gain water from the watertable
influent streams
lose water to the watertable, usually in dry climates
may be result of glacial outwash, climatic or land use change that causes excess sediment to be added to a fluvial system
sediment bounces along the bottom of a stream bed
Stream Power
P= Q * s
discharge times slope
stream competence
largest sediment a stream can carry
stream capacity
total amount of sediment a stream can carry
ablation zone
zone of ice loss at the bottom of a glacier
material being dragged by glacier scrapes the bedrock
rock freezes into glacier and is pulled out when glacier moves
roche moutonne
striations from abrasions up one side, plucking down the back side.
_/|___ ice motion ->
proglacial lakes
lakes lining the ice margin (lake plain is extremely flat)
ridge of sand and gravel formed in an ice tunnel. forms in stagnant ice if ice becomes active the tunnels break
tunnel channels
extremely pressurized streams under glacier can carve bedrock or below sealevel
moulin kame: hole in the ice that fills with sna dand gravel and melts leaving a conical hill,

kame and kettle topo: hummocky
spoon shaped hills along moraines ice motion points toward the point of a drumlin
Wave influence
Depth of wave influence is .5 time the wavelength between two crests
littoral drift
sand moves latterally down the shore
longshore drift
lateral movement of sand along bars
baymouth bar
if spits close due to littoral drift, they form enclosed bays
bedrock offshore connected to shore again by an accumulation of sand forming a bridge
also known as piers, down littoral drift of piers beaches are eroded
a series of structures designed to trap sand in littoral drift
rip rap
big rocks and boulders to stop coastal erosion
an angled seawall that lays over the beach and diverts wave energy, water seaps down between gaps
re-deposited CaCO3 from limestone solution by carbonation usually in caves
caves that have not been /discovered by early humans
collapsed sinkholes
when several dolines connect
long large connection of dolines that looks almost like a river valley that abruptly ends
haystack/ tower karst
landscape lowers from collapse until just some towers of limestone remain (think china)
when water returns to the surface after a sinking creek
hold tite to the ceiling
mite grow up
cracks fill with secondary CaCo3, older rocks weather away leaving the crack fill in crazy grid patterens
rock is eroded with sharp edges from differeing wind direction
coppice dunes
erosional features where shrubs catch sand.
longitudinal dunes
formed by converging wind directions
blowout formed by strong onshore wind with minimal vegetation. arms form upwind forming D shape
barchan dune
sand supply is limited, arms of dune form down wind making c shapes
transverse dune
barchans linked together with one constant strong wind direction
star dunes
produced by variable wind directions, no typical shape form crazy star shapes
perched dunes
grand sable and sleeping bear are examples, wind blows sand up bluff and deposits on top.