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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Definition of a mineral
Naturally occuring, inorganic, and has a definite chemical composition
Common minerals and their chemical formulas
Quartz (Si02)
Halite (NaCl)
Calcite (CaCo3)
Properties of ferromagnesian minerals plus 4 examples
Iron and Magnesium
Dark Colored- Green to Black
High Specific Gravity
Common Rock Forming Minierals
1) Augite
2) Hornblende
3) Olivine
4) Biotite
Matter including states of matter
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Solid (def shape and volume)
Liquid (indef shape, def volume)
Gas (indefinite shape and volume)
Definition of an atom
basic unit of matter
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass Number
Number of protons in an atom
Number of protons + neutrons in an atom
Isotope (including example)
atoms that have the same atomic number, and also have different atomic mass.
Hydrogen- protium, deuterium, tritium
Element
Matter consisting of only one type/kind of atom
Compound
matter consisting of two or more type/kind of atom
Molecule
smallest part of an element or compound
Le Chatlier's Principle
A system in chemical equilibrium, if disturbed, reacts as to regain equilibrium under the new conditions
Ion
an atom that has lost or gained an electron, there for as a charge
Valence
Charge of the atom
Octet rule include methods to
Most atoms try to get 8 electrons in their outer orbit, either by losing, sharing or gaining
losing- Na
Sharing H20
Gaining- Cl
Types of bonding and examples
Ionic oppositely charged ions attracting- halite
Covalent atoms share electrons- H20, diamond
Van der Waals caused by momentary unequal distribution of electrons; causes molecules to be polar and attract- graphite
Metallic when closely packed, atoms have overlapping orbits-- Pyrite, Copper
Rock forming silicates ferromagnesian vs. non-ferromagnesian
Augite, Hornblende, Olivine, Biotite

Quartz, Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Muscovite
Properties of the Periodic Table
1) Lists all known elements
2) Metals are on the left, non-metals are on teh right
3) Symbols are international
4) Arranged in order of increasing atomic #
5) Russian Author- Mendeleev
6) Columns are called families (= groups)
7) Elements in teh same family have similar qualities- same number of electrons
8) Family on far right is called inert or noble gasses
9) Rows are called periods
10) Periodic repetition of properties when crossing a period
Crystal Form
symmetrical shape formed as minerals grow
Color-

How Colors Vary


Types of coloration
- color of a fresh surface

1. missing atom makes milky quartz
2. Substituted atoms
3. Trapped atoms


inherent- when a mineral displays the same color, sulfur- yellow, copper- copper

exhotic- when a mineral displays different colors for exmaple: quartz can be a variety of diff. colors
Luster
The way a mineral shines

Metallic, Glassy and Earthy

Pyrite, Quartz, Talc
Cleavage
Mineral breaks and forms a smooth surface, this occurs b/c atom bonds are of unequal strength- cubic, rhombohedral, and octahedral
Cubic Cleavage
breaks in 3 directions at right angles, halite, galena.
Rhombohedral Clevage
breaks in 3 directions, not at right angles, calcite
Octahedral Cleavage
breaks in 4 directions and forms triangels, for example: diamond, fluorite.
fracture
mineral breaks and forms rough surfaces; occurs because atom bonds are of equal strength. 3 types: aconchoidal, even and uneven.
Aconchoidal Fracture
concentric ring pattern
Even Pattern
Smooth Pattern
Uneven Pattern
Rough Pattern
Moh's Hardness scale
1. Talc (softest)
2. Gypsum
3. Calcite
4. Flourite
5. Apatite
6. Orthoclase
7. Quartz
8. Topaz
9. Corundum
10. Diamond (hardest)
Streak
color of a crushed mineral (use this test for metallic lusters)

hematite- red
Sphalerite- smelly yellow
Striations
parallel lines that resemble grating
Specific Gravity
how many times heaver than water something is. SG= Ds/Dw
Salty Taste
Halite- Salt!
Magnetic
Magnetite
Slippery
Graphite, Talc
Effervescent
HCl, Calcite
Double Refraction
Calcite