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84 Cards in this Set

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Intrusions
Bodies of igneous rock that crystallize or solidify belows earths surface
Intrusions classified by
Size, shape, depth of crystallization, concordance
Stock
stock is a portion of a batholith that bulges upward.
Laccolith
Dome shaped intrusion
Lopolith
Funnel shaped intrusion
Batholith
enormous mass of intrusive igneous rock, that is, rock made of once-molten material that has solidified below the earth's surface
Sill
Tabular, concordant intrusion
Dyke
Tabular, disconcordant intrusion
Volcanic Neck
Intrusion - Solidified lava in the throat of a volcano - after erosion leaves intrusion
Baked Zone
Area on outside of intrusion - country rock that has baked - close to chilled margin
Chilled Margin
Area on very inside of intrusion that has cooled - close to baked zone
Xenoliths
A xenolith is a foreign crystal in an igneous rock or intrusion
Plutons
Deep Intrusions
Viscocity
Stickiness of a fluid - more viscous - less movement
What controls magma viscosity
Compostion & temp - more silica - higher viscocity - more heat - less viscocity
Bang in Magma
Gas in the magma
Gas escapes easier from high or low viscocity
Low
Shallow intrusion
Volcanic neck, dykes, sills
Deep Intrusions (plutons)
Shape - Laccoliths, lopoliths, Size - batholith or stock
Extrusions
Magma break through earths surface - mostly basalt
When magma & Lava cool they form
Igneous rocks - most of the earth's surface is igneous rocks
ID of igneous Rock based on
Texture & composition - Texture - grain size - size, shape & arrangement of crystals, composition of the minerals
Pegmatitic
Very big crystals
Phaneritic
easy to see crystals
Porphyritic
Larger crystals surrounded by smaller crystals
Aphanitic
small, hard to see crystals
Glassy
No crystals - looks like glass
Vesucular
has a hole bunch of little holes in it
Frothy or Cellular
like root beer foam
Composition of Igneous Rocks
% Silica - Ultra Mafic <45, Mafic, Intermediate, Felsic >65
Sediment
name for loose particles that originate from erosion of preexisting rocks & chemical precipitation
Chemical Precipitation
chemicals that were once dissolved -then fall out of solution as sediment
Gravel
> 2mm
Sand
>1/16 - 2mm
Silt
1/256 - 1/16mm - grainy
Extrusions
< 1/256 - smooth
Transportation of Sediment
water, wind, ice/glaciers, people
Results of Transportation
Rounding & sorting
Well sorted sediment
usually transported by water or wind
Poorly sorted sediment
Matrix or clast supported
Lithification
pressure that converts loose sediment into rock
3 methods of turning loose sediment into rock
3 C's - Compaction, Cementation, Crystallization - (calcite & silica are the glue)
Oolitic limestone
Oolites are specs of matter (often organic) that have been coated in limestone to form a small limestone grain
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Clastic, Chemical, organic
Clastic Sedimentary rock
Sedemetary that is made up of little bits of other rocks
Chemical Sedimentary rock
Formed from the precipitation out of solution - gypsum, rock salt
Organic Sedimentary rock
Derived from the remains of living things
Rock
A natural aggregate of minerals - several minerals in a rock
Pressure Melting temp of rock
If you increase pressure on a rock - melting temp increases
Bowens Reaction Series
Page 66
Pahoehoe
Ropy texture on top
aa
blocky - square rocks look on top
Pillow lava
Always forms under water
Pyroclastic
very hot gasses, ashes, country rock
Bombs or blocks
> 64 mm
Lapilli
2 mm to 64 mm
Ash
< 2 mm
Lahar
Volcanic mudflow
Flood basalts volcano
largest volcanic eruption based on volume - comes out of central vent - can flow for miles - Siberian Traps
Shield volcano
Looks like a shield - basalt - successive lava flows built on each previous layer - 10X broad as is tall - Hawaiian Islands
Cynder cones
Result of a single eruption - gas rich basalt - not violent but not seeping lava either - ex Paricutin
Stratovolcano or Composite
Alternates between Pyroclastic & lava flow - mt Ranier or Mt St Helens
Caldera
form by collapse of rock into empty magma chamber - removes top part of volcano - Vesuvius
Volcanic Dome
lava so sticky it can't travel far - oozes from vent - can plug up the vent-pressure builds-then pyroclastic eruption
Predicting Volcanic eruptions
Earthquakes, gas emissions, bulge & tilt
Direct lahar
eruption melts snowcap
Indirect lahar
rain falls on previously laid debris
Toxic gas from volcana
Carbon Dioxide
Hazards from Lava
Moves slowly, follows predictable path, mostly dangerous to structures & stupid people
Hazards from Pyroclastics
Cloud of pyroclastics (rocks, gas & ash),very hot, very fast- fallout(ash) - collapse roofs of structures, respiratory problems, air traffic
Lava types
BAR - Basalt, Andesite, Rhyolite - 50, 60, 70 % Silica, least viscous to most viscous, hottest to coolest
Minerals- 4 things to be considered mineral
Solid, Crystalline, Definite Chemical Composition, Naturally formed
Classification of Minerals
Silicates, non silicates
Mohs hardness scale
2.5 fingernail, 5.5 glass or knife
Hypothesis
Any idea or model that needs to be tested
Theory
Accepted hytpothesis - a hypothesis which has been tested w/o being proved wrong
Law
A fact that is always true
Element
substance that can't be broken down into a simpler substance through ordinary means
Atom
Smallest particle that exist as an element
Parts of an atom
Protons, neutrons, electrons,
Ion
An atom with a charge
Bonding
Ionic - opposites attract - covalent - sharing electrons
Atomic number
Number of protons in nucleus
Atomic mass
Total # of protons plus total # of neutrons