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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth.
Physical geology
examines the materials composing Earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate beneath and upon its surface
Historical geology
seeks an understanding of the origin of EArth and its development through time
What are some of the problems and issues addressed by geology?
Natrual hazards, resources, world population growth, and environmental issues
Earth's features formed through sudden and violent changes
Who believed in Catastrophism?
Aristotle - 300 bc
When did James Ussher believe the Earth was created?
What did James Hutton write?
Theory of the Earth in 1780
What was the main idea of this book?
What is Uniformitarianism?
the processes that operate today have operated in the past
Who was Lord Kelvin and what did he believe?
the greatest physicist of his day and siad that the Earth cannot be more than 100 million years old.
What was his assumption based on?
a simple convective cooling model
What did Mark Twain believe?
that scientific research has shed considerable darkness on teh subject of teh Age of the EArth and if they continue at their present pace, wel'll soon know nothing about it
What did Sir Charles Lyell write and think?
Principles of Geology - The present is the key to the past
What do Uniformitarianist today believe?
That Earth's geological history can be interpreted through processes we see operating today.
We can also understnad Earht's present by...
interpreting its past
Relative dating
dates are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in year
What are a few important markers of relative time...
Fossils of pre-existing life -such as fish and amphibians
The principle of _______is useful for dividing PHanerozoic time
faunal succession
What is the magnitude of geologic time?
millions or billions of years
Science assumes the natural world is...
consistent and predictable
What is one goal of scientists?
to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictions
How do scientist collect data?
Through observation and measurements
How or why things happen is explained by using what?
The scientific method
a tentative or untested explanation
a well-tested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts
Scientific Laws
porvide brief - usually mathmatical - statements to describe nature
Are scientific laws superior to theories?
What does the scientific method involve?
Gathering facts through observations

Formulation of hypotheses, theories, and laws
What are Earth's four spheres?
HYdrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere and Solid earth
What does Earth's system science aim to study?
Earth as a system composed of numerous interacting parts or subsystems
What type of feedback mechanisms do systems have?
negative and positive
The hydrologic cycle is one of Earth's _____?
The Earth's system is powered by ______?
Solar energy
What does Solar engery drive?
most of the external processes in the Atmosphere, hydrosphere and at the earth's surface
What drives the processes in the Earth's interior?
Radioactive decay of isotopes U 234, U 235, K 40 etc
What is the earth's interior comprised of?
Lithosphere, Asthenosphere, Mesosphere, and Core?
Concerning the origin of planet Earth what do most researchers blieve about when Earth and the planets formed?
They believe they all formed at essentially the same time.
What is the solar nebula?
A rotating cloud composed of hydrogen and helium
When did it begin to contract?
about 5 billion years ago
What is the Nebular hypothesis?
Assumes that a flat, disk shape cloud (nebula) with the protosun in the middle began to form inner planets and outer planets
What were the inner planets formed from?
metallic and rocky substances
What were the larger planets formed from?
fragments of ices - h2o co2 and others
what are Chondrites?
contain spherical aggregates of high-temperature minerals condensed from the solar nebula mixed with some pre-solar grains
What aggregates of high-temperature minerals do Chondrites contain?
olivine and pyroxene ---called chondrules
What pre-solar grains are in Chondrites?
Fe-Ni Meteorites, Lunar samples, Martian meteorites
Chondrites generally give radiometric ages of ______?
~4.5 Ga (billion years)
Regarding the formation of Earth's layered structure what happened with the metals?
They sank to the center - esp Fe and Ni
What happened to the molten rock?
it rose to produce a primitive crust
What does the chemical segregation in Earth establish?
Three basic divisions of Earth's interior
What did the primitive atmosphere evolve from?
gases in the Earth's interior
What are the Geophysical Divisons of the Earth?
-Outer Core
-Inner Core
Layers defined by composition...
Layers defined by physical properties...
-Inner and outer core
Have we ever sampled the mantle directly?
Where have we been able toe xamine slivers of the uppermost mantle and overlying oceanic crust?
Cyprus, Turkey
Where can you find an oceanic crust section?
Antakya. Turkey

The Syrian Antioch