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97 Cards in this Set

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Define Geology
The science that studies: Earth materials, Earth's history, Earth's processes.
What is the roll of geology in society? (Sub-Disciplines)
Mineralogy
Petrology
Structural Geology
Sedimentology
Paleontology
Geochemistry
Geophysics
Seismology
Geomorphology
Economic Geology
Petroleum Geology
Parts of an atom include
Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, Nucleus
Define Ion, Cation, and Anion
Ions - atoms with excess positive or negative charge (gain or loss of electrons from the outermost shell).
- Ions dissolved in water will combine to form compounds.
Cations (positive charge, lose electrons) Ca+
Anions (negative charge, gain electrons) CO¬3 -
Define Isotope
Isotopes - elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
Types of Bonds
1. Van der Waals weakest bond- weak attraction. (Graphite)
2. Ionic - transfer of electrons between cations and anions. Sodium Chloride (salt), NaCl
3. Covalent strongest bond- electrons are shared between atoms. Oxygen (O2)
4. Metallic - electrons are shared but move about freely between ions making metallic minerals good conductors of electricity (copper, gold)
How does bond strength relate to mineral hardness?
The stronger the bond the harder the mineral.
What are the most common elements on Earth, by weight? (8)
1. Oxygen 47%
2. Silicon 28%
3. Aluminum 18%
4. Iron 5%
5. Calcium 4%
6. Magnesium 3%
7. Sodium 3%
8. Potassium 2%
What are the requirements a substance must meet to be a mineral? (NISCO)
1. Naturally formed
2. Inorganic Processes
3. Soild
4. Chemical Composition (specific)
5. Orderly internal structure
Know about the mineral properties
Cleavage, crystal form, hardness, streak, density, color, luster.
What is the Mohs hardness scale, in general?
this scale is used to determine the RELATIVE hardness of minerals helps in their identification. (NO UNITS)
Define Rock, Talus, and Freeze
Rock- a coherent, naturally occurring solid, consisting of an aggregate of one or more minerals, or a mass of natural glass or organic matter.

Talus- a rock slope, a pile that accumulates at the base of a mountain (the pile consists of rocks that have been physically weathered).

Freeze- Liquid to a solid. The changing of a state of matter.
Define Plutonic and Volcanic
•Plutonic – cools underground
•Volcanic – cools above ground
Define Aphanitic and Phaneritic
Aphanitic- Rapid Cooling/ Small Crystals
Phaneritic- Slow Cooling/ Large Crystals
Define Magma and Lava
1. Magma – molten material below the Earth's surface.
2. Lava – molten material above the Earth's surface.
Define Intrusive and Extrusive
•Intrusive (plutonic) rock – cools and solidifies below the Earth's surface.
•Extrusive (volcanic) rock – cools and solidifies above the Earth's surface.
Define Mafic and Felsic/Silicic
•Mafic – low SiO2; high iron and magnesium
•Felsic/Silicic – high SiO2; low iron and magnesium
Define Viscosity and Texture
Viscosity- resistance to flow [honey=high & water=low]

Texture – overall appearance, related to size, shape, and arrangement of minerals.
Texture is related to cooling history of an igneous rock, not its chemistry.
What are the sources of heat that cause rocks to melt?
Radioactive Decay, Residual Heat
What factors control melting? (3)
Temperature, Pressure, Water Content
What is the name for a non-explosive volcano? and an explosive volcano?
Non-Explosive (Shield Volcano)
Explosive (Strato/Composite Volcanoes)
Why are some volcanoes explosive while others are not?
Explosive if high viscosity, (high silica content)
What is the most dangerous thing associated with volcanoes?
Pyroclastic flow
What are the types of Earth material associated with volcanoes?
Volcanoes occur when magma (melted rock) from within the Earth's crust reaches the Earth's surface, and are generally located along the boundaries of tectonic plates
What are the main types of weathering?
Chemical and Mechanical
What are the different types of mechanical weathering? (5)
Frost Wedging, Salt Wedging, Biological Wedging, Unloading, Thermal Expansion
What are the different types of chemical weathering? (3)
Ion Exchange, Dissolution, Oxidation
What are the factors which influence the rate of weathering?
Rock Structure, Topography, and Climate
Define regolith and soil
Regolith – blanket of loose, weathered rock debris covering unweathered bedrock.
Soil- can form on top of regolith
How does water transport material? (3)
Saltation, Bed Load, Suspended Load
How does wind transport material? (3)
Saltation, Bed Load, Suspended Load
True or False: ice can sort material during transport?
False; only water and wind can sort material.
How do rock striations differ from mineral striation?
Rocks = Huge Striations
Minerals = Small Striations
Which theory is described as: This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915 and includes a series of observations, but fails to identify the mechanism which created these observable features. Wegener proposed that the Earth’s surface was dynamic and that land masses moved around and interacted. He hypothesized that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent which he named Pangaea.
The Continental Drift theory.
What are the lines of evidence supporting the Continental Drift theory? (5)
1. Matching Coastlines
2. Matching Geology
3. Glacial Striations
4. Fossil Evidence
5. Apparent Polar Wandering
Which theory is described as: This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915 and includes a series of observations, but fails to identify the mechanism which created these observable features. Wegener proposed that the Earth’s surface was dynamic and that land masses moved around and interacted. He hypothesized that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent which he named Pangaea.
The Continental Drift theory.
What was Pangaea?
The hypothesis that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent named Pangaea.
What are the lines of evidence supporting the Continental Drift theory? (5)
1. Matching Coastlines
2. Matching Geology
3. Glacial Striations
4. Fossil Evidence
5. Apparent Polar Wandering
Which theory is described as: This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1915 and includes a series of observations, but fails to identify the mechanism which created these observable features. Wegener proposed that the Earth’s surface was dynamic and that land masses moved around and interacted. He hypothesized that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent which he named Pangaea.
The Continental Drift theory.
What theory is described as: This theory brings together the Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading theories and explains many of the landforms we see on the Earth’s surface and the processes which formed them.
Plate Tectonics- The Unifying Theory
What was Pangaea?
The hypothesis that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent named Pangaea.
What is the driving force behind Plate Tectonics?
Radioactive Decay
What are the lines of evidence supporting the Continental Drift theory? (5)
1. Matching Coastlines
2. Matching Geology
3. Glacial Striations
4. Fossil Evidence
5. Apparent Polar Wandering
Which is older, oceanic or continental crust?
Continental Crust
What was Pangaea?
The hypothesis that at some time in the past, all land masses were assembled into a super-continent named Pangaea.
Describe Divergent Plate Boundaries
1. Continental - rift valleys. These rifts form as the Earth begins to open beneath the continental land.
2. Ocean - mid-oceanic ridge / spreading sea floor. At divergent boundaries new crust is created as two or more plates pull away from each other. Oceans are born and grow wider where plates diverge or pull apart.
What theory is described as: This theory brings together the Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading theories and explains many of the landforms we see on the Earth’s surface and the processes which formed them.
Plate Tectonics- The Unifying Theory
What theory is described as: This theory brings together the Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading theories and explains many of the landforms we see on the Earth’s surface and the processes which formed them.
Plate Tectonics- The Unifying Theory
Describe Convergent Plate Boundaries
Oceanic-Continental (ex// Andes Mts.)
Oceanic-Oceanic (ex// Japan, Philippines)
Continental-Continental (ex// Himalaya Mts.)
What is the driving force behind Plate Tectonics?
Radioactive Decay
What is the driving force behind Plate Tectonics?
Radioactive Decay
Describe Transform Plate Boundaries
The Earth's crust is moving in opposing directions (like North and South) causing a Transform fault to occur (ex// San Andreas Fault)
Which is older, oceanic or continental crust?
Continental Crust
Which is older, oceanic or continental crust?
Continental Crust
Describe Divergent Plate Boundaries
1. Continental - rift valleys. These rifts form as the Earth begins to open beneath the continental land.
2. Ocean - mid-oceanic ridge / spreading sea floor. At divergent boundaries new crust is created as two or more plates pull away from each other. Oceans are born and grow wider where plates diverge or pull apart.
How and where are rift valleys formed?
Formed from divergent plate boundaries within continental crust.
Describe Divergent Plate Boundaries
1. Continental - rift valleys. These rifts form as the Earth begins to open beneath the continental land.
2. Ocean - mid-oceanic ridge / spreading sea floor. At divergent boundaries new crust is created as two or more plates pull away from each other. Oceans are born and grow wider where plates diverge or pull apart.
Describe Convergent Plate Boundaries
Oceanic-Continental (ex// Andes Mts.) EXPLOSIVE
Oceanic-Oceanic (ex// Japan, Philippines) LAND FORMS
Continental-Continental (ex// Himalaya Mts.) NON-EXPLOSIVE
Describe Convergent Plate Boundaries
Oceanic-Continental (ex// Andes Mts.) [EXPLOSIVE]
Oceanic-Oceanic (ex// Japan, Philippines) [LAND FORMS]
Continental-Continental (ex// Himalaya Mts.) [NON-EXPLOSIVE]
Describe Transform Plate Boundaries
The Earth's crust is moving in opposing directions (like North and South) causing a Transform fault to occur (ex// San Andreas Fault)
Describe Transform Plate Boundaries
The Earth's crust is moving in opposing directions (like North and South) causing a Transform fault to occur (ex// San Andreas Fault)
How and where are rift valleys formed?
Formed from divergent plate boundaries within continental crust.
How and where are rift valleys formed?
Formed from divergent plate boundaries within continental crust.
An example of a Phaneritic. Plutonic, Intrusive, Silicic/Felsic rock is
(Coarse Grained/ Light Colored)
Granite
An example of a Phaneritic. Plutonic, Intrusive, Intermediate rock is
(Coarse Grained)
Diorite
An example of a Phaneritic. Plutonic, Intrusive Mafic rock is
(Coarse Grained/ Dark Colored)
Gabbro
An example of a Aphanitic, Volcanic, Extrusive, Felsic/Silicic rock is
(Fine Grained/ Light Colored)
Rhyolite
An example of a Aphanitic, Volcanic, Extrusive, Intermediate rock is
(Fine Grained)
Andesite
An example of a Aphanitic, Volcanic, Extrusive, Mafic rock is
(Fine Grained/ Dark Colored)
Basalt
True or False: a volcanic rock has fine crystals
True
True or False: a plutonic rock has coarse crystals
True
True of False: a volcanic rock can also be called an extrusive rock
True
True or False: a plutonic rock can also be called an intrusive rock
True
True or False: as pressure increases, temperature decreases
False; there is a direct relationship between temperature and pressure. As pressure increases, temperature increases.
True or False: Dark Minerals form first
True
True or False: Light Minerals form last
True
True or False: Light Minerals melt last
False; Light Minerals melt first
True or False: Dark Minerals melt first
False; Dark Minerals melt last
What are the top two most common elements on Earth?
Oxygen and Silicon
True or False: a Silicic/Felsic rock is light in color
True
Is a Mafic rock Low or High in SiO2?
Low.
True or False: a Phaneritic rock is Fine grained
False; a phaneritic rock is Coarse grained.
True or False: a Phaneritic rock cooled slowly from magma
True
True or False: a Phaneritic rock can also be known as a Volcanic rock
False; a Phaneritic rock can also be known as a Plutonic rock
True or False: an Aphanitic rock cooled rapidly from lava
True
True or False: an Aphanitic rock can also be known as an Extrusive rock
True
True or False: an Aphanitic rock is Coarse Grained
False; an Aphanitic rock is Fine Grained
True or False: a Mafic rock is High in Fe/Mg
True
True or False: Mafic minerals Form First and Melt Last
True
True or False: Silicic/Felsic minerals Form Last and Melt First
True
Benefits of Weathering include:
Creates Soil and Produces Clay, Sand, Gravel, and Minerals.
True or False: a Cation has a positive charge
True
True or False: an Anion has a negative charge
True
True or False: In order for an ion to have a positive charge it must gain electrons
False; in order for an ion to have a positive charge it must LOSE electrons (therefore becoming less negative)
True or False: In order for an ion to have a negative charge it must lose electrons
False; in order for an ion to have a negative charge it must GAIN electrons (therefore becoming more negative)
True or False: Adding more Neutrons to an isotope will change the atomic weight, but will not change the actual element
True
True or False: Rain water is naturally acidic
True