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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
bedding plane(p. 151)
a nearly flat surface separating two beds of sedimentary rock. Each bedding plane marks the end of one deposit and the beginning of another having different characteristics.
beds (p. 151)
parallel layers of sedimentary rock.

The most common characteristic of sedimentary rocks
biochemical origin (p. 144)
organic (life) processes of water-dwelling organisms also form chemical sediments
cap rock (p. 158)
a necessary part of a oil trap. The cap rock is impermeable and hence keeps upwardly mobile oil and gas from escaping at the surface.
cementation (p. 139)
one way in which sedimentary rocks are lithified. As material precipitates from water that percolates through the sediment, open spaces are filled and particles are joined into a solid mass.
chemical sedimentary rock (p. 140)
sedimentary rock consisting of material that was recipitated from water by either inorganic or organic means.
clastic (p. 149)
a sedimentary rock texture consisting of broken fragments of preexisting rock.
compaction (p. 139)
a type of lithification in which the weight of overlying material compresses more deeply buried sediment. It is most important in fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale.
cross-bedding (p. 151)
structure in which relatively thin layers are inclined at an angle to the main bedding. Formed by currents of wind or water.
crystalline texture (p. 150)
the texture of sedimentary rocks in which the minerals form a pattern of interlicking crystals.
detrital sedimentary rock (p. 139)
rocks that form from the accumulation of materials that originate and are transported as solid particles deived from both mechanical and chemical weathering.
diagenesis (p. 139)
a collective term for all the chemical, physical, and biological changes that take place after sediments are deposited and during and after lithification
enviroment of deposition (p. 150)
a geographic setting where sediment is accumulating.
three types:
1. continental
2. marine
3. transitional (shoreline)
evaporite (p. 147)
a sedimentary rock formed of material deposited from solution by evaportation of water.
fossil (p. 151)
the remains or traces of organisms preserved from the geologic past
fossil fuel (156)
general term for any hydrocarbon that may be used as fuel, including coal, oil, natural gas, bitumen from tar sands, and shale oil.
graded bed (151)
a sediment layer characterized by a decrease in sediment size from top to bottom
lithification (139)
the process, generally by cementation and/or compaction, by converting sediments to solid rock
mud crack (151)
a feature in some sedimentary rocks that forms when wet mud dries out, shrinks and cracks
nonclastic (150)
a term for the texture of sedimentary rocks in which the minerals form a pattern of inerlicking crystals.
nonmetallic mineral resource (154)
mineral resource that is not a fuel or processed for the metals it contains
oil trap (158)
a geologic structure that allows for signigicant amounts of oil and gas to accumulate.
reservoir rock (158)
the porous, permeable portion of an oil trap that yields oil and gas
ripple mark (151)
small waves of sand that develops on the surface of a sediment layer by the action of moving water or air.
salt flat (148)
a white crust on the ground produced when water evaporates and leaves its dissolved materials behind.
sediment (138)
inconsolidates particles created by the weathering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitations from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms, and transported by water, wind or glaciers.
sorting (141)
the degree of similartiy in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock
strata (beds) (151)
parallel layers of sedimentary rock