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29 Cards in this Set

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The earth is _______ yrs old.
4.6 billion
Catastrophism
earth was formed at a specific time by a single event.
Uniformitarianism
James Hutton- The father of geology.
"the present is the key to the past"
Lyell
wrote first books on geology
Holmes
wrote first textbook
Atmosphere
the envelope of gas around the earth.
Troposphere
lower 50,000 of the atmosphere where all life and geology processes occur.
Lithosphere
solid rocks of the earth crust
Crust
3-30 miles thick up to 60
Sial
light crust rocks
Sima
Heavy deep basement complex rocks
Mantle
molten rocks-magma- 1800 miles thick-3 layers.
the three layers of the mantle
1-Asthenosphere- layers directly below the crust that EXERTSPRESSURE on the crust.
2-upper mantle
3-lower mantle
Core
2200 miles to the center- solid inner- liquid outer.
What is mainly in the core?
Mostly nickle and iron compounds
Plate Tectonics Theory
explains how the crust is broken in to 9 major and 22 minor chunks.
Convection Cells
Rotating units in the mantle that exert pressure on the crust.
Three Plate Boundaries
1) Divergent- pulling apart (Crystal plates)...Rift Valleys, Volcanic Act, Mid ocean ridges.
2) Convergent- pushing together- result in subduction- trench formation and Volcanic act.- Continental collisions-mt. ranges.
3) Transformed- sliding (horizontal displacement) along a sliding plate boundary. (Cali)
Plate Tectonics
Theory that the Earths lithosphere consists of large, rigid plates that move hoizontally in response to the flow of the asthenosphere beneith them, and that interactions among the plates at their borders cause most major geologic activity, including the creation of oceans, continents, mountains, volcanoes, and earthquakes.----9 main - 22 minor.
Rock Cycle
Natural transformation of PRIMARY IGNEOUS ROCKS into ROCKS-aggrogates composed of one or more minerals
Igneous Rocks
Rocks that form from molten solutions of MAGMA (below the surface) and Lava (on the surface)--> 95% of all
Product of cooling and __________
crystallization
Metamorphic
any rocks which are altered by heat and by pressure.
Sedimentary
form as either CLASTIC (fragment) accumulations or as organic precipitates.
Lithification
changing settlements to rock
Minerals
-naturally occurring, INORGANIC, solids composed of elements, having distinct chemical and CRYSTALLINE properties.
-over 4,000 varieties
-most are compounds
crystalline
distinct atomic structure carbon
Formation
Below the surface
-Molten solution-igneous
-Through rushes of water
Atom
smallest part of an element