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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is light produced?
by electrons falling back
What galaxy do we live in?
milkyway galaxy
What is radio- atonic?
the breaking up of nuclear activity
How are humans formed?
-formed from hydrogen atoms, iron, calcium, etc.
-we are recyled bits of stars that that may have exploded
Where do hydrogen atoms, iron, calcium, etc come from?
-they came from some previous star.
How were the planets formed?
-formed by dust and debris from the sun
Where do atoms come from that makes us up?
Where does hydrogen and some helium come from?
-the Big Bang
What is the core made up of?
What is the mantle made up of?
Where is the crust most thick at?
-near the mountains
What are platetectonics?
-it is the outer layers of the earth moving around
What are the six minerals that make up a rock?
What are isotopes?
-different kinds/ varieties of the same element (identified by the numer of protons)
What are ions?
-atoms that have a charge

(by gaining electrons...they bcome negatively charged; by losing electrons...they become positively charged)
What are atoms made up of in the inside? Outside?
-inside: protons and electrons
-outside: electrons
What is ionic bonding?
-the transfer of electrons...makes ions that attract
What is covalent bonding?
-where atoms share electrons (H20)
Between a Continental Volcano and a Ocean Floor volcano, which one is more viscous?
-the continental volcano
What does Eutectic mean?
it is where everything crystalizes at the same time. The point where they both meet.
Bowens Reaction theory was an attempt for what?
-it was an attempt at an explanation as to liquid and magma rock crystalling
If you start with 80% water and 20% anti-freeze, what will be the ending result?
the same as what you started
What is the earth made up of?
When crystals are noticeable, what does that represent?
slow cooling
What does the term aphanitic mean?
fine grained crystls (small crystals)
What does phaneritic mean?
coarse grained (larger crystals)
When are rocks intrusive?
when you can inevitably see crystals.
What are the characteristics of sedimentary rocks?
*Grains and Layers
What are the two types of sedimentary rocks?
Detrital and chemical
What are derital rocks?
-an accumulation of grains and particles

*transported as solid particles derived from mechanical and chemical weatering
What are examples of detrital rocks and what mineral or rockit may have been derived from?
-gravel (conglomerate)
-sandstone (sand)
-mudstone (silts and clays)
What are chemical sedimentary rocks?
form from some type of chemical process or soluble material which was produced by chemical weathering
Shale (silts/clay), conglomerates, and these in the order from the smallest to the largest.
shale, sand, and conglomerate
What is erosion?
the picking up of grains
What is the process of mechanical weathering?
1. frost wedging
2. biological wedging (plants opening
3. thermal expansion (rocks expand/
contract b/c of temp.)
4. unloading (pressure release/ rocks
become sheets)
What are the 3 Chemical weathering process?
- dissolution (salt,sugar or limestone dissolves)

-oxidaton (iron or rich silicate minerals rust/ rocks reacting with oxygen)

-hydrolysis (silicate structures broken into clay)
What are the layers of the soil?
O horizon- top soil
A horizon- top soil
E horizon- leach (depletion of soluable materials from top soil)
B horizon- parental
What is the charge on quartz?
if the lines are straight, what typ of bed form would it produce?
2-d structutre
If the lines are wavy, what type of bedform would be produced?
3-d structure
Where are channels?
where water flows all the time and moves sedimentary materials both ways
What is a flood plain?
this is where deposition goes on at the time of flooding. you later get mud..then the water dries up and returns to the channel.
These three faces get a grain moving.
What would be the typical sequence in the meandering stream?
Erosion surface
What causes waves?
What are igneous rocks?
-they form from molten material

*(groups of minerals from liquid that form rock and are crystalized)
What are sedimentary rocks?
-come from a preious rock. You have to have weathering.
What are metamorphic rocks?
-they have a distinct form. they are formed where the pressure was intense and the heat was high.
What is a polymorph?
minerals that look different, but are of the same composition
At what temp and pressure do sedimentary rocks form?
low temp/pressure
When one plate goes downward under another, what is that called?
zone of subduction
If oxygen has 2 electrons on the first shell; and 4 electrons on the outer shell...what does it become?
*a -2 ion
What type of rocks does the ocean floor contain?
*basaltic rocks
What type of minerals does the basaltic rock contain?
plgioclase feldspar and magnessium
What type of rocks are located on the continental floor?
*roks that are granitic in composition
If a crossbed is 1-2 meters in depth...what is it called?
*3-d dune
If the cross bed is 1 ft high..What type of crossbed is it?
*2- dune
If a crossbed is only about centimeters high...what is it called?
What is the light spectrum used for?
*used to determine which elements are present in the galaxy
What are plates and what part of the earth does it include?
*it is the lithosphere that has a thickness of 1,000 km.

*it includes the crust of the earth and the mantle.
Why do only 2 tides occur?
*b/c of gravity and centripital force

*u get 2 tides 12 hrs apart and 2small tides in between
When the sun and moon are in line with each other, tides are at their highest and they occur twice a month... what type of tide is it called?
*spring tide
When the sun and moon are at right angles, there are small high tides/low tides, and occurs twice a month..what is it called?
*neap tides
Which series includes feldspars, has a 3-d structure and shares all four of its electrons?
*Continous series
Which series tetrahydra doesn't share any oxygens and a chemical reactions occur?