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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The accepted age of Earth is 2.6 billion years.
According to tectonic models, Earth's rigid outter shell, the crust, is broken into large slabs called
Lithosphere (none of the above)
A scientific _____ is a well established, tested, and accepted explanation of a natural phenomenon.
When tectonic plates collide, this is considered _____ type of active plate tectonic boundary.
The earth's layer that consists of the crust and uppermost mantle and forms a relatively cool rigid shell is?
The law of _____ states that in a layer of undisturbed sed. rocks or lave flows, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom.
The most abundant mineral group in Earth's crust are the silicates.
Each element is defined by the number of _____ in the nucleus.
The doctrine of ______ is commonly stated as the present is the key to the past.
Where oceanic and continental plates converg the more dense continental plate sinks beneath the less dense oceanic plate.
The tendency of minerals to break along smooth flat surfaces is?
Fossil organisms succeed one another in a random and undetermineable order and any time period is very difficutl to date relatively.
An electrically charged atom that loses or gains electrons is?
Which of the following is a characteristic of minerals?
A unique set of physical properties
A type of plate boundary where plates grind past each other without either generating new crust or consuming old crust is a ______ plate/fault boundary.
The type of bonding when electrons are shared between atoms is?
The building block of the silicate minerals is?
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
On Mohs hardness scale, which is the hardest element?
Igneous rocks are produced largely by the deposition and consolidation of surface materials like sand and mud.
In the early 1900s pioneering investigations by ______ established the sequence in which minerals crystallize from a magma.
A process of developing more than 1 rock type from a common magma is magmatic_____
The most important factor affecting the texture of an igneous rock is the ____ of the magma.
Rate of Cooling
Which natural philosophy of the 17th century was based on a firm belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.
Extrusive igneous rocks can possess a fine grained texture called?
The left branch of Bowens reaction series is called the continuous side of the series b/c the minerals react w/ the magma and continually form new minerals.
Which one of the following terms is used by geologists to denote a rock w/ a high % of iron and magnesium minerals (making it dark in color)?
Continental crust has a composition closer to granite thatn oceanic crust.
Volcanoes are insignificant when it comes to global climate change.
Crater Lake is a caldera and was produced by?
the summit of a volcano collapsed
There are very few volcanoes on the west coast of the US.
A ______ is built almost exclusively from ejected lava fragments and is the smallest type of volcano.
Cinder cone
Plutons are extrusive igneous bodies.
Columnar Joints form by?
Contraction and fracturing during cooling of igneous rocks.
The magma that cools very rapidly on the Earth's surface would develop ____ type of texture?
A _____ is a fiery flow of volcanic debris that is capable of racing down a steep volcanic slope at high speeds.
Nue'e Ardente
Which of the following factors help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or tranquil (think of the viscosity of the magma)
All of these (composition of magma, texture of magma, amount of dissolved gas in magma)
Flood basalts are usually intrusive features.
The largest type of volcanoe is the composite variety.
Low viscosity lave that develops twisted braid like and relatively smooth appearance is ____ lava.
A destructive mudflow that occurs when volcanic debris becomes saturated with water and rapidly moves down steep volcanic slopes is ?
The largest volcanoes on Earth are the ?
Would high viscosity magma create a more explosive volcanic eruption?
Pyroclastic material is pulverized rock and lave fragments blown from a volcanoes vent, this includes bombs.
Which process is not considered a mechanical weathering process?
Chemical weathering would be most effective _____.
In a warm, humid climate.
The type of soil we have in NJ is?
The gradual rounding of the corners and edges of angular blocks of rock is ??
None of these (Frost wedging, unloading, sheeting, exfoliation)
At which of these locations would frost wedging be most effective?
Trenton, NJ (alternating freezing and thawing)
Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?
All of the above (mineral content, climate, presence of joints, slope of the land)
Soil is 20% air and water.
Secondary enrichment from weathering of rock is done in which 2 ways?
Removing undesirable material and leaching and depositing desirable material.
Biologic activity is considered chemical weathering?
Which of the following is NOT true of soil?
It is the same as regolith.
The decayed remains of animals and plants in soil is?
Leaching and eluviation are greatest in the?
E horizon