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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The accepted age of Earth is 2.6 billion years.
False
According to tectonic models, Earth's rigid outter shell, the crust, is broken into large slabs called
Lithosphere (none of the above)
A scientific _____ is a well established, tested, and accepted explanation of a natural phenomenon.
Theory
When tectonic plates collide, this is considered _____ type of active plate tectonic boundary.
Convergent
The earth's layer that consists of the crust and uppermost mantle and forms a relatively cool rigid shell is?
Lithosphere
The law of _____ states that in a layer of undisturbed sed. rocks or lave flows, the youngest layer is on top and the oldest on bottom.
Superposition
The most abundant mineral group in Earth's crust are the silicates.
True
Each element is defined by the number of _____ in the nucleus.
Protons
The doctrine of ______ is commonly stated as the present is the key to the past.
Uniformitarianism
Where oceanic and continental plates converg the more dense continental plate sinks beneath the less dense oceanic plate.
False
The tendency of minerals to break along smooth flat surfaces is?
Cleavage
Fossil organisms succeed one another in a random and undetermineable order and any time period is very difficutl to date relatively.
False
An electrically charged atom that loses or gains electrons is?
Ion
Which of the following is a characteristic of minerals?
A unique set of physical properties
A type of plate boundary where plates grind past each other without either generating new crust or consuming old crust is a ______ plate/fault boundary.
Transform
The type of bonding when electrons are shared between atoms is?
Covalent
The building block of the silicate minerals is?
Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
On Mohs hardness scale, which is the hardest element?
Diamond
Igneous rocks are produced largely by the deposition and consolidation of surface materials like sand and mud.
False
In the early 1900s pioneering investigations by ______ established the sequence in which minerals crystallize from a magma.
Bowen
A process of developing more than 1 rock type from a common magma is magmatic_____
Differentiation
The most important factor affecting the texture of an igneous rock is the ____ of the magma.
Rate of Cooling
Which natural philosophy of the 17th century was based on a firm belief in a very short geologic history for Earth.
Catastrophism
Extrusive igneous rocks can possess a fine grained texture called?
Aphanitic
The left branch of Bowens reaction series is called the continuous side of the series b/c the minerals react w/ the magma and continually form new minerals.
False
Which one of the following terms is used by geologists to denote a rock w/ a high % of iron and magnesium minerals (making it dark in color)?
Mafic
Continental crust has a composition closer to granite thatn oceanic crust.
True
Volcanoes are insignificant when it comes to global climate change.
False
Crater Lake is a caldera and was produced by?
the summit of a volcano collapsed
There are very few volcanoes on the west coast of the US.
False
A ______ is built almost exclusively from ejected lava fragments and is the smallest type of volcano.
Cinder cone
Plutons are extrusive igneous bodies.
False
Columnar Joints form by?
Contraction and fracturing during cooling of igneous rocks.
The magma that cools very rapidly on the Earth's surface would develop ____ type of texture?
Glassy
A _____ is a fiery flow of volcanic debris that is capable of racing down a steep volcanic slope at high speeds.
Nue'e Ardente
Which of the following factors help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or tranquil (think of the viscosity of the magma)
All of these (composition of magma, texture of magma, amount of dissolved gas in magma)
Flood basalts are usually intrusive features.
False
The largest type of volcanoe is the composite variety.
False
Low viscosity lave that develops twisted braid like and relatively smooth appearance is ____ lava.
Pahoehoe
A destructive mudflow that occurs when volcanic debris becomes saturated with water and rapidly moves down steep volcanic slopes is ?
Lahar
The largest volcanoes on Earth are the ?
Shield
Would high viscosity magma create a more explosive volcanic eruption?
Yes
Pyroclastic material is pulverized rock and lave fragments blown from a volcanoes vent, this includes bombs.
True
Which process is not considered a mechanical weathering process?
Hydrolysis
Chemical weathering would be most effective _____.
In a warm, humid climate.
The type of soil we have in NJ is?
Pedalfer
The gradual rounding of the corners and edges of angular blocks of rock is ??
None of these (Frost wedging, unloading, sheeting, exfoliation)
At which of these locations would frost wedging be most effective?
Trenton, NJ (alternating freezing and thawing)
Which of these factors influence the type and rate of weathering?
All of the above (mineral content, climate, presence of joints, slope of the land)
Soil is 20% air and water.
False
Secondary enrichment from weathering of rock is done in which 2 ways?
Removing undesirable material and leaching and depositing desirable material.
Biologic activity is considered chemical weathering?
False.
Which of the following is NOT true of soil?
It is the same as regolith.
The decayed remains of animals and plants in soil is?
Humus
Leaching and eluviation are greatest in the?
E horizon