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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an Atom?
Smallest Individual particle retaining properties of an element
What is an element?
fundamental substances into which matter can be broken down chemically
What is a Rock?
Natually formed, coherent mass of one or more minerals
What is a Mineral?
1)naturally formed 2) inorganic 3)solid 4)specific chemical composition 5)characteristic crystal structure
What is in the Nucleus?
Protons (+charge) neutrons (neutral)
What is the Atomic Number?
Number of prtons in nucleus
What is the Mass Number?
Total number of protons plus neutrons
What is an Isotope?
Atoms witht the same atomic number but diferent mass numbers
What is an Electron
(-charge), very little mass , moves in orbitals or energy-level shells
What is an ion/
atom with excess positive or negative charge caused by electron transfer
What is an cation?
+ charged ion
What is an anion?
- charged ion
What is a compound?
two or more elements combine in a specific ratio
What is Ionic bonding?
attraction/bonding between +&- charged particles
What is Covalent Bonding?
Sharing of electrons by two adjacent atoms (strong)
What is metallic bonding?
Electrons shared between several atoms
What are van der waals bonding?
weak secondary attraction between cerain molecules
What is a complex ion?
two or more ions taht act as a single entity
What is Crystal structure?
Geometric patterns of atoms in a solid
What is Crystalline
Has a crystal structure
What is Amorphous?
Lack crystal structures
What is ionic substitution?
Ions with similar sizes and charges can substitute for each other
What is Crystal form?
Geometric arrangement of crystal faces
What is cleveage?
Mineral's tendency to break in preferred directions
What is Luster?
Quality and intesity of light reflected
What are the common minerals?
o, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, Kw
What is a silicates?
minerals that contain silicate anion
What is Plymerization?
Process of linking silicate tetrahedra
What are Igneous rocks?
Form from cooling and solidfication of magma
What are Sedimentary rocks?
Form from consolidation of sediment
What are metamorphic rocks?
Orignal form has been altered by high T*
What is texture?
size, shape, and arrangement of mineral grains
What is mineral assemblage
varietites and abundance ofminerals present
What is the rock cycle?
Exposed rocks tranform into sediment;sediment is buried and compacted, becoming sedimentary rock, deep stuff turns into metamorphic rock, and the deepest is melted turned into magma which forms igneous rock.
What is extrusive igneous rocks/
Formed by solidification of lava/tephra on earth's surface (fine grain)
What is intrusive igneous rocks?
formed by solidification or magma w/in earth's crust (coarse grain)
What is Phanerite grain?
Coarse grained >2mm intrusive
What is Pegmatite grain
Unusually large mineral grains (>2cm)
What is Aphanite grain?
Fine grained (<2mm) extrusive
What is Pophyry grain/
Coarse grains(pheoncrysts) in a fine-grained groundmass
What is Pyroclast?
Fragment of rock ejected during volcanic eruption
What is tephra?
Deposit of pyroclasts
Sizes in order of tephra?
bombs (>64 mm), Lapili (2-64mm0 and ash (<2mm)
What is an agglomerate
Coarse bomb-sized tephra
What is a tuff'?
fine tephra particles can be welded
What are plutons?
all bodies of intrusive igneous rock
What is a dike?
that cuts across layering of rock it intrudes
What is a sill?
parallel to layering of rock they intrude
What is a Laccolith?
Parallel to layering of rock, but has a bent layers above it into a dome
What is a volcanic pipe
Cylindrical conduit that fed magma to vent
What is a batholith
large, irregularly-shaped pluton that cuts across layering of rock
What is a stoping
Rising magma dislodges fragments of overlying rock
What is a xenolith
Stopped fragment enclosed in magmatic body when it solidfies
what is stock
irregularly-shaped plutons, like batholiths, but smaller
What is magmatic differentitation by fractional crystallization?
compositional changes caused by sinking of early crystallized inerals to bottom of magma chamber
What is Bowen's reaction series
Sequence in which minerals crytallize from cooling magema; inerals with highest melting poitns crystallize first
What is the composition of baslatic magma?
50% SiO2
What is the compostion of andestitic magma
60% SiO2
What is the composition of rhyolitic magma
70% SiO2
What is viscosity
the ability to move. cold more viscose
Non-explosive eruptions
low viscosity,(basaltic)magma and low disolved-gas content
What is a Lava fountain
Forms when baslatic magma rises so rapidly that gas bubbles from solution(non explosive)
What si a spatter cone
Forms when bits of falling lava pile up beside vent(non explos)
What is a lava tube
Subsurface channels in pahoehoe lava flows
What is a vesicles
gas bubble holes preserved in solidified rock;produces rock w/vesicular texture
What are amygdules
vesicles filled by secondary minerals
What is a explosive eruption
viscous(andesitic/rhyolitic)magma with high dissolved-gas content
what is pumice
froth of innumber, glass-walled bubbles
what si ash
tiny fragments of shattered, solidified magma
What is a eruption column
mixture of hot gas and tephra rising rapidly into air
what is a tephra fall
rain of devris particles as eruption cloud drifts w/ upper winds
what is a pyroclastic flow
denser-than-air mixutre of hot gas and ash; fast and lethal
What are ignimbrite
Solidified deposit resulting from pyroclstic flow
What is a lateral blast
Sideways eruption
what is a shield volcanoes
built up of very fluid (basaltic)lava flwos; broad, dome-shaped; gentle slopes hawaii
what is a stratovolcanoes
emith both tephra and lava; build up steep, conical mounds; much larger than tephra cones (thiolitic)
What are craters
depressions near summit from which volcanic materials are ejected
what are lava domes
late-stage, very viscous extruded after most gas exsolved
what are calderas
circular, steep-walled basins
what are resurgent domes
due to uplife of caldera;also small tephra cones/lava flows
what is a tephra fall
rain of devris particles as eruption cloud drifts w/ upper winds
what is a pyroclastic flow
denser-than-air mixutre of hot gas and ash; fast and lethal
What are ignimbrite
Solidified deposit resulting from pyroclstic flow
What is a lateral blast
Sideways eruption
what is a shield volcanoes
built up of very fluid (basaltic)lava flwos; broad, dome-shaped; gentle slopes hawaii
what is a stratovolcanoes
emith both tephra and lava; build up steep, conical mounds; much larger than tephra cones (thiolitic)
What are craters
depressions near summit from which volcanic materials are ejected
what are lava domes
late-stage, very viscous extruded after most gas exsolved
what are calderas
circular, steep-walled basins
what are resurgent domes
due to uplife of caldera;also small tephra cones/lava flows
what are diatremems
volcanic pipes filled w/rubble of broke rock
what is a fissure eruption
extrusion of basaltic lava along elongate fractures
what are plateau basalts
wide, flat plains produced by lavas from fissure eruptions
what are pillow baslats
basalt fomred by submarine eruptions
what are ash flows
andestitic or ryoltic magma, destructive
what are thermal springs
ground water heated by hot rock in/near old magma body
what is a geyser
thermal spring that displays intermittent eruptions of water and steam
what are the 5 volcanic hazards
proclastic flows, burial and or suffocation, mudflows, tsunami, famine