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38 Cards in this Set

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orogeny
mountain building
brittle deformation
rock cracks and breaks in to pieces

moves rock or changes orientation
ductile deformation
rock changes shape w/o breaking

changes shape
strain
the way rocks change shape when subjected to stress
compression causes
shortening
tension causes
stretching
shear causes
shear strain
dip-slip faults are
reverse, thrust, normal
strike-slip faults are
left lateral, right lateral
pseudotachylite
glass that forms along a fault plane due to frictional melting
fold
curving rock layers
hinge of a fold
portion where curvature is greatest
limbs of a fold
sides that show less curvature
anticline
arch-shaped (frowny face)
limbs dip away from the hinge
syncline
trough like shape
limbs dip towards the hinge
monocline
shape of a carpet draped over a stair step
plunging fold
anticline plunging in to the ground
young rocks are on the outside layer in an
anticline
mountain chains are rooted by
large boulders plunging in to the ground
crustal root
crust is thicker under mountains
cratons

what types of rock will you find in the heart of the mountain?
rock under mountains

gneisses and granites
define "strike"
hinge of a fold or fault
define "dip"
angle of limbs of a fold, any placement that isn't horizontal
the angle of a plunging cline as it goes in to the ground is a . . .
dip
crater vs. caldera
crater: meteorite or other impact

caldera: magma chamber empties, earth sinks
define accretion
piling up during subduction
what do subduction zones do to continents?
subduction zones add and subtract from continents
4 types of stress rocks can experience
1. tension
2. hydrostatic
3. shear stress
4. compression
tension stress
normal fault, brittle, rift zones
ophiolite suite


define
when oceanic crust goes up on a continent during subduction
define sheer stress
when one side of a rock body moves sideways past another side
define compression
happens when a rock is squeezed
ductile deformation
pressure and heat

like a ball of dough deforming
brittle deformation
cooler but pressure

like a cracking plate
ophiolite suite:

what are the layers from top to bottom?
1. pillow basalts
2. sheeted basalt dykes
3. gabbro
4. peridotite

when oceanic crust goes up on to a continent during subduction
How do slabs go down?
1. gravitational pull
2. slab-pull force
3. ridge-push force
ridge push force
ridge drives the lithosphere plate away from the ridge, separates lithosphere plate
slab pull force
the force that downgoing slabs apply to the oceanic lithosphere at a convergent margin