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95 Cards in this Set

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What is a sediment?
Material (such as gravel, sand, mud, and lime) that is transported by wind, water, ice, or gravity;
material that is precipitated from solution; deposits of organic origin (such as coal and coral reefs).
What is the difference between a sediment and a sedimentary rock?
A sedimentary rock is a rock formed by the accumulation and consolidation of sediments
How are sedimentary rocks lithified (made solid)?
Cementation (gluing clasts together), and Compaction (squeezing clasts together)
What are Clastic and NonClastic rocks?
Clastic: broken fragments of rock produced by weathering.
NonClastic: not formed from other rocks or rock particles.
What are the textures of sedimentary rocks?
Clastic and NonClastic
How does sediment transport affect rounding, sorting, and size of clasts.
In General, the farther clasts are transported, the rounder, more sorted, and smaller they become.
How does clast size and sedimentary rock name relate?
Gravel = Conglomerate
Sand = Sandstone
Silty Mud = Siltstone
Clayey Mud= Shale
The Parent rock of Slate is
Shale
How are nonclastic rock made?
Organic Processes. Biochemical (composed of remains of plants and animals). Chemical (formed by minerals precipitating from solution).
Sediments are created by (3):
The weathering of the rock
The secretions of organisms or decomposition of organic matter
Chemical precipitation
Describe solid state recrystallization.
changes that occur without the rock melting (rocks that melt are igneous).
What are the factors influencing metamorphism (4)?
Temperature, Pressure, Pore Fluid, Time
What are the textures associated with metamorphic rocks?
Foliated and NonFoliated
What is foliation and how do rocks become foliated?
Foliation is a metamorphic rock texture due to alignment of minerals as a result of differential stress. Rocks become foliated through pressure and heat.
What is regional metamorphism and what type and texture of rocks are associated with it?
Regional Metamorphism is associated with convergent plate margins. Folding and faulting increase thickness of the crust. Associated with FOLIATED rocks.
What are the heat and pressure conditions during regional metamorphism?
Occurs over a range of temperatures and pressures. Low grade to high grade metamorphism. Associated with FOLIATED rocks.
What is contact metamorphism and what type and texture of rocks are associated with it?
Contact Metamorphism occurs in rocks around a magma body. Associated with NONFOLIATED rocks.
What are the heat and pressure conditions during contact metamorphism?
Low (No) pressure (occurs at shallow depths in the crust). High temperature (heat from magma). Associated with NONFOLIATED rocks.
What are the heat and pressure conditions during burial metamorphism?
Relatively low temperature and pressure. Associated with FOLIATED rocks.
What is burial metamorphism?
Most common type, occurs where crust is greater than 5km thick.
The parent rock of Marble is
Limestone
What mineral develops in schist and phyllite?
Schist = Biotite Mica/Garnet
Phyllite = Muscovite Mica
What is the reigning theory of the formation of the Universe?
The Big Bang Theory
How old is the Universe?
13.7 billion years old
What is the reigning theory of the formation of the Solar System?
Nebular Theory
What is planetary differentiation?
During the time of partial melting, all the terrestrial planets separated into three layers of differing physical and chemical composition. (Crust, Mantle, Core)
Why is the Earth unique among the other planets in the solar system?
1.Where water is known to exist near the surface in solid, liquid, and gaseous forms.
2.Where regolith, loose layer of material covering the Earth, is formed by dynamic processes.
3.Where life, as we know it exists.
What is the difference between a Jovian and a Terrestrial planet?
Terrestrial (Rocky)
Jovian (Gaseous)
What is a system and how is a system defined?
1.Systems are defined by how energy and matter cross the boundaries.
2.The boundaries of a system can be defined however you want.
3.Portions of the universe that can be separated from the rest for the purpose of studying changes in them.
What are the three types of systems?
Isolated, Closed, Open
Explain the Principle of Uniformitarianism.
Geologic processes operating today are similar to those that have operated throughout Earth's history.
How does the length of time over which we observe data influence the length we can predict?
The longer you collect data, the more accurate the predictions and further into the future they'll be.
What is relative dating?
The age of a rock, fossil, or other feature measured relative to another.
What is absolute dating?
The age of a rock in years. (Numerical Dating)
Define stratum
Distinct layer of sediment
Explain Original Horizontality
Water-borne sediments are deposited in horizontal layers.
Explain Superposition
In a sequence of rocks,the youngest rocks are on top and the oldest are on the bottom.
Explain Unconformities
A surface within a sequence of layers where no deposition, and possibly erosion, took place.
(Disconformity, Angular Unconformity, Nonconformity).
Explain Inclusions
If a rock fragment is found within another rock type, the fragment is older.
Explain Cross-Cutting Relationships
A rock layer is always older than a feature that cuts through it.
Define Asteroid
rocky and metallic objects that orbit the sun but are too small to be considered planets (aka minor planets) in the asteroid belt.
What is an unconformity?
A surface withing a sequence of layers where no deposition, and possible erosion, took place.
Describe the three types of unconformities
Disconformity
Angular Unconformity
NonConformity
How did geologists reconstruct the rock column?
Using a mixture of relative and absolute dating
Largest subdivision of time to smallest (3)?
Eon, Era, Period
How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
Define radioactive decay.
Radioactive decay - spontaneous transformation of an element to another isotope of the same element or another element.
What are the two types of radioactive decay we discussed in class?
Alpha (loss of a positively charged He ion) and Beta (neutron splits into a proton and electron)
What is an isotope?
Element with different number of neutrons in the nucleus
Define half-life.
The fixed period of time during which half the parent atoms present in a closed system decay to form daughter atoms
Define Comets
small, fragile, frozen, in oort cloud
Define Meteor and Meteorite
Meteor = space dust or debris which produces light as it collides with Earth's surface (parts of asteroids or comets)
Meteroite = meteor that hits Earth's surface
In metamorphic rocks, a lot of banding means
a high grade rock
Define Differential Stress
pressure is greater in one direction than in another, aligns perpendicular to pressure.
The HIGHER the Temperature the ______ Change
MORE
When it comes to Pore Fluid; in the presence of water, _____ changes occur
MORE
Define Strata
layers of sedimentary rock
Define Bedding
Layering or Stratification in sedimentary rock
Limestone forms in the _______
Ocean (warm, clear, shallow, salty water)
Sediments are
Soft and Loose
Sedimentary Rocks are
Hard and Solid
Clastic rocks are classified according to ____ of clast.
SIZE
Poorly Sorted ...
... Sediment with a wide range of grain sizes
Well Sorted...
... Sediment with a small range of grain sizes
Sphericity is
how close to a spherical shape a grain is or will be.
Define NonClastic Biochemical (Biogenic)
Composed of remains of animals and plants (terrestrial). Marine sediments are mainly carbonates.
Define NonClastic Chemical
Formed by minerals precipitating from solution. Inorganic process only. No Biological Activity, NEVER ALIVE. Occurred through evaporation of water.
The Parent rock of Quartzite is
Sandstone (Quartz Sandstone)
Clastic is associated with
Conglomerates
NonClastic is associated with
Evaporites
Is Marble Clastic or NonClastic?
Neither. Marble is a Metamorphic rock; not a sedimentary rock.
What type of system transfers neither energy nor matter?
Isolated
What type of system transfers energy but does not transfer matter?
Closed
What type of system transfers both energy and matter?
Open
What textures are associated with Sedimentary rocks?
Clastic, NonClastic (chemical), NonClastic (biological).
What textures are associated with Metamorphic rocks?
Foliated and NonFoliated
Which type of system doesn't exist in the real world?
Isolated
The Terrestrial planets include
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
The Jovian planets include
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Earth's crust and mantle contain mostly
Silicates
Earth's core contains mostly
Iron
According to the diagram: NonClastic evaporites (such as Halite, Gypsum, and Chert) are found in
Basin (Playa Lake)
According to the diagram: Closest to the source (mountains in this case) the talus found at the base of the mountains contains angular and round clastic rocks. Which is which?
Breccia is ANGULAR
Conglomerates are ROUNDER
According to the diagram: As you move downstream what types of clastic rocks will you find?
Sandstones (Arkose and Lithic Sandstones)
According to the diagram: As you reach the beach what type of clastic rocks will you find?
Quartz Sandstone
According to the diagram: As you move downstream what type of NonClastic rocks will you find in a swamp?
Coal
According to the diagram: What type of NonClastic rocks will you find near the beach?
Coquina
According to the diagram: As you move offshore what type of clastic rocks will you find?
Siltstone and Shale
According to the diagram: As you move offshore what type of NonClastic rocks will you find (near reefs)?
Limestone
An example of LOW Grade Metamorphism is
Slate
An example of INTERMEDIATE Grade Metamorphism is
Phyllite
An example of HIGH Grade Metamorphism is
Schist
Lithification can be defined as
The process of converting unconsolidated sediment clasts into sedimentary rocks.
What two ways can a rock be lithified?
Cementation and Compaction
In absolute dating, what gives us the atomic plot to put a time on something?
(the rate of) Radioactive Decay