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75 Cards in this Set

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Changing a loose sediment into a hard sediment rock that includes both physical and chemical changes
Diagenesis
Large breaks in the sedimentary rock
Unconformities
Type of unconformity- Sed. over Ign. or Meta. rock (often basement) (usually has very large time loss, new transgression)
Nonconformity
Type of unconformity-Sed. over tilted or folded sed. rock,usually has large time loss, indicates orogeny (geosyncline)
Angular Unconformity
Type of unconformity- Sed. over eroded sed. rock (relief) Medium-large time loss, usally on platforms
Disconformity
Type of unconformity- Sed. over parallel sed. rock (almost no relief) usally medium time loss, looks like bedding plane
Paraconformity
Depostional eniornment that includes mountains, high plains
Upland terrestrial
Depostional environment that includes coastal plains, rivers, lakes, deltas
Lowland terestrial
Depostional environment that includes continental shelves, platforms, bays
Shallow-water marine
Depostional environment that includes cont. slope and rise, abyssal plains, ridges, and trenches
Deep-sea
Preservability order of depostional environments?
shallow-water marine>lowland terrestial>deep sea> upland terrestial
1st big revolution in geology (1822-1841)
Relative Time Scale
Features of a "geological clock"?
1.Accuracy-runs at a constant rate
2.resistant to physical and chemical changes
3.starts at time of formation of geologic feature
4.has a suitable rate for feature you want to date
5.has several clocks running to check against each other
information needed to calulate a date for geologic feature?
Half-life (exponential) decay curve (P/Po vs. h [no. of half lives]) Parent-to-daughter ratio (P/D) - usually measured
H = Half-life decay constant for each P-D combination T (time, yrs. age) = H (yrs./half life x h (no. of half lives)
What is the Range of Paleontology
All types of life (record of organisms living today plus all those that have become extinct)
All of geologic time since life first appeared on earth (at least 3,500 mill. years ago)
All aspects of organisms and their existence (both the pattern of the
empirical record and the inferred processes that may have produced it)
a subdivision of Paleontology that inclused fossil invertebrates
Invertebrate paleontology
subdivision of Paleontology that includes fossil vertebrates
Vertebrate paleontology
subdivision of Paleontolgy that includes fossil microorganisms
Micropaleontology
subdivision of Paleontology that includes fossil algae and plants
paleobotany
Def- Any evidence of past life preserved in rock (usally sedimentary)
Fossils
Type of fossil that includes skeletons or hard parts of multicellular fossil organisms
Body fossils
Type of fossil that includes evidence of an organism's activity (footprints, trails, root traces corprolites)
Trace fossil
Type of fossil that includes skeletons of tiny or unicellular fossil organisms
Microfossils
Type of fossil that includes soft part presevation in fossil organisms (rare)
Extraordinary fossils
What are the five biases in the fossil record
1.skeletons, hard parts
2.depostional environment
3.Time Bias-99% of all fossils in last 12% of geologic time 1% precambrian
4. sample-verysmall vs. what lived in past
5. collector bias
use of fossils to tell time and date sedimentary rocks
Biostratigraphy
How fossil organisms work and interactions with thier enviroment
Paleoecology
changes in living organims through geologic time "decent with modification", natural selection, speciation rates, ect.
Evolution
geographic distribution of fossil organisms, mirgation, plate movements
paleoclimatology
climatic distribution of fossil organisms, climatic zones
paleoclimatology
isotopic analysis of fossils (temperature, salinity, growth rates)
Biogeochemistry
type of preservation of a fossil that includes pertified wood, silica or pyrite repl.
Permineralized fossils (replacement)
Type of preservation of fossils that include leaves, soft tissues (rare)
Impressions
Type of preservation of fossils that include leaves, wood (coal)
Carbonized fossils
Type of preservation of fossils that includes mollusc steinkerns, molds in chert or shale
Molds and casts
Type of preservation of fossils that includes leaves, soft-bodies organisms
siderite (iron carbonate) concretions
The Five different ways to preserve a fossil
Permineralized, impressions, carbonized fossils, molds and casts, siderite (iron carbonate) concretions
name the hierarchical classification in order
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
The 4 main points for evoultion by natural selection
1. organism overproduce offspring
2. organisms vary in nature
3. only some offspring survive on average
4.most advantageous variants survive on average
The problems and objections to evolution and natural selection
1.) Divine creation vs. mechanistic evolution (humans)
2.) Natural selection explains only half of evolution - adaptations to environmental conditions but not how variations got there
originally (mutations, etc.)
3.) Darwin needed particulate inheritance (genes act like particles) vs. commonly believed blended inheritance (genes act like liquids) - Gregor Mendel's (1866) paper on genetics of garden peas proved this but paper nearly unknown until1900.
4.) Fossil record didn't support at first - too incomplete, no
continuous evolutionary lineages, big gaps between major groups, but this changed in next 10-20 years.
Jurassic ammonoid lineages, Tertiary horse sequence from N. America, "missing links" such as Archaeopteryx,1st fossil humans (Neanderthal man).
5.) Lord Kelvin's estimate for age of the Earth based on heat loss only ~40 mill. yrs. - way too short for amount of time needed by Darwin for gradual evolution in organisms. Not disproved until Boltwood's (1907) radiometric age dates.
a heritable attribute of an organism
Character
an ancestral charcter. This character was inherited from a distant, or ancient ancestor
plesiomorphy
A group of taxa that includes an ancestor and some, but not all of its decendants
Paraphyletic group
A group of taxa that excludes the common ancestor of the taxa within it, and places the ancestor in another taxon
polyphyletic group
A group of taxa that is made up of an ancestor and all of its descendents
Monophyletic group
slow continous change in whole species vs. almost no change in main populations (stasis) + rapid change in isolated populations (peripheral isolates)
Phyletic gradualism (old) vs. Punctuated equilibrium
grouping taxa (families) by when they reach thier maximum diversity in fossil record
Evolutionary faunas
trilobites dominate this evoultionary fauna
Cambrian Evol. fauna
brachiopods dominate this evoultionary fauna
Paleozoic Evol. Fauna
clams, and snails dominate this evoultionary fauna
Modern Evol. Fauna
fast divergence of small group followed by large slower diversification to produce new major group
Adaptive radiation
Two unrelated taxa evolve v similar morphology (produce polyphyletic group if classified together)
Convergence
Little change in morphololgy over a long period of time- "Living fossils"
Arrested evolution
the probable age of the earth
4.5-4.6 billion yrs. based on lead isotopes, meteorites, moon rocks
how old are the the oldest crustal rocks on Earth
4.0+billion years
the important factors for the Earth's favorable climate
1. Distance from the Sun
2. Liquid H2O on Earth (Temp. n. const., CO2 i, H2O to oceans)
3. Large Moon (vs. Earth size) - stabilize orbit, med. tilt of axis
4. Life on Earth (produce O2)
5. Large outer planets (intercept comets, stabilize orbits)
6. Plate tectonics (still active surface, cont. growth of oceans)
later change from reducing-->oxidizing atmosphere
2.5-2.0 bill. yrs. ago
55% of present Earth surface
22% of present Earth surface
15% of present Earth surface
8% of present Earth surface
Deep Sea
Low-land terestrial
Shallow-water marine
Upland terestrial
Name the compositional layers of earth and describe each one
Crust-Earth's outermost layer, thickness ranges from 5km (oceanic crust) to 35km (continental crust)
Mantle-ranges from base of crust till 2900km depth high percenatge of Fe and Mg collectively termed peridotite
Core- composed of liquid outer core and solid inner core. Both composed of iron and nickle
Name the Mechanical layers of Earth
Lithosphere- rigid outer layer including crust and upper mantle broken into a number of large plates
Asthenosphere-underlies litosphere. Rock in asthenosphere behaves in a ductile (plastic)manner.
Mesosphere-below asthensphere rocks behave like solid again
Bottom of the crust marked by an overall change in rock mineralogy and density, so that seismic waves velocities suddenltly increase
Moho disountinuity
The amount of sediment delivered to a continental margin affects relative sea level
Sediment supply
The margins of continents that tend to gently warp downward as they are loaded with sedimennts
Subsidence
refers to the changes in ocean water level across the entire word
Estastic Seal Level
Appearance and branching order considered together, Linnean graded clasification
Evolutionary
Branching order alone, new features at each node, nested cladogram diagram and classification
Cladistic
-tonalites (granitic gneisses) early cont. crust
-greenstones with komatites (high mg basalts)
-early crust
Archean Rocks
-tonalites+greenstones
-anorthosites, granodiorites
-silceaous banded iron ores (chert+Fe2O3)
Proterozoic Rock
Types of Earth material behavior
Brittle(break)-high stress applied fast
Elastic(bounce)-low medium stress applied fast
Plastic(flow)-low-med stress applied slowly
Areas of thick,deformed, sedimentary rocks usually in mountains
Geosynclines
Parts of the geosyncline
Miogeosyncline (near cont.)
Eugeosyncline (near ocean)
The cycle of a geosyncline
Depostional-Terminal Oregeny-Erosional Part
Evidence for Mobile Continents
1. fittong and matching continents margins,surface geology
2.Climatically controlled features like glacial deposits
3.Paleomagnetism
4.Ocean Features
5.Seismic information
most common type of sediment feature
Bedding
Transgession and Regression
opposite of each