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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Earthquake
-vibration of Earth produced by rapid release of energy
Focus
-source of Earthquake or hypocenter
Elastic Rebound
-springing back of the rock as it returns to its original shpae
Aftershocks
-smaller earthquakes generated after a major one
Foreshock
-precedes a major earthquake by days or even years
Fault Creep
slow, gradual displacement
Stick Slip
when a fault has alternating periods of locked behavior followed by sudden slippage and release of strain
Seismology
study of shakes
Seismograph
records seismic waves
seismograms
records obtained from seismogrpahs
surface waves
waves traveling along the outer part of the Earth
Body Waves
travel through the Earth's interior
P Waves
-primary
-compressional
S Waves
-secondary
-shake, change shape
Epicenter
location on the surface directly above the focus
Richter Scale
-based on amplitude of largest seismic wave recorded on a seismograph
-logarithmic scale
Surface Wave Magnitude
-measures largest amplitude surface wave having a period close to 20 seconds
-doesn't work well for deep focus earthquakes
Body Wave Magnitude
describes earthquakes with great focal depths
Moment Magnitude
calculated from field studies and seismographs
What affects earthquake destruction?
1. intensity of vibrations
2.duration of vibrations
3.nature of material upon which structure rests
4. design of structure (soft sediment vs. bedrock)
What causes damage?
1. ground rupture
2.downed power lines
3. landslides
4.falling debris
5.building, bridge collapse
6.tsunami
7.chimney collapse
Liquefaction
when unconsolidated materials are saturated with water
seiches
rythmic slashing of water in lakes
tsunami
waves generated by an earthquake, result from vertical displacement on the ocean floor
How can Earthquakes be predicted?
-animal behavior
-strain in rocks
-uplift
-subsidence
creep meters, tilt meters
Paleoseismology
the study of layered deposits that were offset by prehistoric seimis disturbances
Angular
layered rocks that were uplifted and other rocks are above
non-conformity
igneous or metamorphic rocks overlaid by seidments
disconformity
gap in fossil record or irregular erosion
radioactive decay
spontaneous breakdown of unstable isotopes, follows predictable mathematical equation