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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pressure
(brittle v. ductile)
high pressure = ductile
low pressure = brittle
Temperature
(brittle v. ductile)
high temp = ductile
low temp = brittle
Water Presence
(brittle v. ductile)
less water = ductile
more water = brittle
Stress
change in shape caused by stress which causes deformation
Uplift rate during mountain building
1 mm/year
What different plate tectonic events cause mountain building?
1) Subduction
2) Continental collision
3) Continental rifting
What rock types are associated with mountains formed by subduction?
Andesites, basalts granites and related igneous rocks.  
High-pressure, low temperature metamorphic rocks and low-pressure, 
high-temperature metamorphic rocks (starting rocks=igneous and 
sedimentary)
What rock types are associated with mountains formed by collision?
Highly deformed high-grade metamorphic rocks (that started off as 
sedimentary rocks).  Immature sedimentary rocks. A few igneous granites 
if it was preceded by subduction.
What rock types are associated with mountains formed by rifting?
Basalts and continental (redbed) sediments
When did the Appalachian Mountains form, and what plate tectonic processes led to this orogeny?
Paleozoic Era (Grenville Orogeny), occurred by continental collision
When did the Himalayan Mountains form and what plate tectonic processes led to this orogeny.
55 Ma, formed by continental collision
What is strike?
angle between an imaginary horizontal line (the strike line) on the plane of the direction to true north
What is dip?
angle of the plane’s slope, angle to horizontal
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
displacement
movement/slip across fault plane
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
drag folds
fold that develops in layers in rock adjacent to a fault during or just before slip
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
fault scarp
Small step on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved with respect to the other
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
fault breccia
Fragmented rock where angular fragments where formed by brittle fault movement, it occurs along the fault
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
fault gouge
Pulverized rock consisting of fine powder that lies along fault surfaces, form by crushing and grinding
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
slickenslides
Polished surface of fault caused by slip of the fault, lineated slickenslides have grooves that indicate direction of fault movement
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
slip lineations
linear marks on a fault surface created during movement of the fault
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
mylonite
rock formed during dynamic metamorphism, characertized by foliation that lies rougly parallel to fault, involved in shearing process, fine grains, formed by non brittle subdivision of larger grains
FAULT ZONE IDENTIFICATION
shear zones
fault where movement occurred ductilely