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35 Cards in this Set

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External processes occur ____
at or near Earth's surface
3 External processes
1. Weathering
2. Mass Wasting
3. Erosion
External processes responsible for
transforming solid rock to sediment
Derive from Earth's interior and elevate by mountain building and volcanic activity
Internal processes
Break rock apart and move debris to lower elevations
External processes
Physical breakdown an chemical alteration of rocks near or at surface
Weathering
Transfer of rock and soil down slope under influence of gravity
Mass Wasting
Physical removal of material by mobile agents- water, wind, ice
Erosion
Occurs where rock is mechanically fragmented and/or chemically altered
Weathering
Accomplished by phycial forces that break rock into smaller and smaller pieces without changing the rock's mineral composition
Mechanical Weathering
Involves a chemical transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Chemical Weathering
Breaking down in mechanical weathering ______ surface area available for chemical attack
Increases
3 physical processes
1. Wedging
2. Expansion resulting from unloading
3. Biological activity
Sections of rocks wedged loose and tumbled into piles. Form steep rock outcrops
Talus slopes
Onion like layers in unloading
Sheeting
Unloading occurs i nlarge masses of ____ rocks
Igneous
Break down rock components an internal structures of minerals. Convert constituents to new minerals or release them to surrounding environment
Chemical weathering
Most abundant continent rock
Granite
End product of chemical breakdown of feldspar. Very stable under surface conditions.
Residual Clay minerals
V resistant to weathering. Component of granite.
Quartz
Weathered rocks have rounded shape
Spheroidal weathering
Rates of Weathering influenced by
1. Rock characteristics
2. Climate
3. Differential weathering
Portion of regolith that supports the growth of plants. Combo of mineral an organic matter, water, air.
Soil
1/2 of soil
Disintegrated and decomposed rock and humus
The decayed remains of animal and plant life. Enhances soil's ability to retain water
Humus
Soil is product of complex interplay. 5 items
1. parent material
2. Time
3. climate
4. plants and animals
5. topography
2 types of possible soil
1. Underlying bedrock- residual soils
2. Undonsolidated deoposits- transported soils
Factors that influence soil from parent rock
1. type of parent material affects rate of weathering and rate of soil formation
2. affects soil fertility
most influential factor of soil
Climate
Soil Profile layers
O
A
E
B
C
Topsoil = which layers?
O
A
Solum= which layers?
O
A
E
B
Soil moved by thin sheets of water
Sheet erosion
Rates of erosion
1. Soil characteristics
2. Climate
3. Topography
4. Type of vegetation
Outcomes of Soil erosion
1. Lower productivity
2. Poorer crop quality
3. Reduced agricultural income