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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acid rain
rain formed when fossil fuels are burned and produce oxides that react with water and sunlight
agents of erosion
running water, wind, gravity, waves, glaciers
body waves
seismic waves that occur in the body of the Earth, including P waves and S waves
Chemical weathering
weathering that occurs when the chemical makeup of a rock changes
cinder cone volcano
steep-sided volcano, erupts with violent explosion
composite volcano
volcano characterized by violent eruption and many layers of deposits
continental drift
theory that states the Earth's continental and oceanic plates move
continental shelf
shallow underwater plain that borders continents
convection current
circular currents in the mantle
convergent boundaries
place where two plates are moving toward one another
core
center of Earth
crust
solid, outer layer of Earth
delta
fan-shaped landform caused by running water losing speed, usually found at mouth of river
deposition
process by which weathered materials are carried by erosion and deposited in new places
divergent boundaries
two plates are moving apart
dome mountain
mountain formed when magma has cooled and hardened beneat the Erth's surface and pushed upward
earthquake
jolting that occurs when two plates try to move past one another
elevation
height above sea level
epicenter
point on Earth's surface that is directly above the focus of an earthquake
erosion
process by which weathered material is moved form one place to another by wind, running water, waves, gravity, or glaciers
fault
weak point or fracture in Earth's crust
fault-block mountains
mountains created along fault lines by shifting, breaking, uplifting of Earth's surface during earthquake
flood plains
flat parts of river valley nexxt tot he channel which are built of sediment and flood when river overflows
fold mountains
mountains are formed by layers of rock being squeeze and bent into folds y Earth's plates converging
fossil
actual remains, petrified remains, carbon traces, or molded impressions of plants and animals that have been preserved, usually in rocks
fossil mold
hollow space left when sediment hardens around an object before it decays
geologists
scientists who study the process that form and change the Earth
glacier
moving mass of ice that forms when more snow falls in the winter than melts in the summer
gravity
only agent of erosion not in motion, the pull of things torward the Earth
hot spots
areas in the Earth's plates where magma pushes through a weakness in the crust, usually forming a volcano
igneous rock
fiery rocks, rocks taht form from melted minerals as magma cools
inner core
center of Earth, thought to e made of solid spherical core
latitude
imaginary lines running east and west, locating points north or south of the equator
lava
molten material that has been forced through the Earth, usually through a volcano
longitude
imaginary lines running north and south, perpendicular to the equator
magma
molten rock under the Earth's surface
mantle
thick middle layer of the Earth between the crust and the core
metamorphic rock
rock that forms when existing rock is changed by extreme heat and pressure
mid-ocean ridge
world-circling system of mountain ranges on the ocean floor where molten rock rises, solidifies, adds to the sea bed and widens the sea floor
mountain
land that is at least 2000 feet above sea level, with sttep sides, long slopes, at least two different areas or climate or life
ocean floor spreading
divergent plate movement on the ocean floor that results in mid-ocean ridges
outer core
center of Earth thought to be liquid, surrounds solid inner core
P Waves
primary waves, seismic body waves that travel forward in straight, push-pull fashion
Pangaea
super continent formed 200 million years ago
peak
top of volcano or mountain
physical weathering
weathering that occurs when the size and shape of rocks change through change sin temperature or growth of plant roots
pillow lava
lava cooled rapidly under water
plates
rigid blocks of Earth's crust and upper mantle
plate tectonics
theory of plate movement
Richter scale
scaled based on numbers 1 to 10 that measures energy released by earthquake
Ring of Fire
major earthquake and volcanic zone that forms almost a circle around Pacific Ocean
runoff
rainwater that flows over the EArth's surface and empties into streams and rivers
S Waves
secondary waves, seismic body waves that travel in an S shape
sea level
zero elevation
sediment
particles of soil, rocks, and minerals moved by erosion, called silt, sand, gravel, or clay depending on the size of the particles
sedimentary rock
rock that forms from pieces of other rocks or remains of once-living things by pressure, forms layers over many years
seismic waves
shock waves of energy released by an earthquake
seismometer
tool used to capture motion of earthquake
shield volcano
gently sloping sides, layers of hardened lava, typically slow moving eruptions
soil
top layer of Earth's surface made up of weathered rocks and materials
subduction zone
region where oceanic plate is pushed beneath the continental plate, place of lots of volcanic activity
surface waves
slowest, but most dangerous, type of seismic wave that rolls along surface of Earth
transform faults
voundaries at which plates move past one another horizontally
tremor
slight movement of Earth, very small quake
trench
long, narrow valley on ocean floow found along a subduction zone
tsunami
Japanese for harbor wave, wave of water that sometimes accompanies earthquakes, volcanoes, and underwater landslides
volcanism
process that causes chemicsl, fertile soil, and minerals to be brought to the surface of Earth
volcano
mountain formed by accumulation of material that has erupted out of Earth's interior
weathering
breaking down of rocks and other materials on surface of Earth