Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/86

Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Metamorphism?
The Solid-State transformation, within the earth of preexisting rocks into distinct new rocks by high temperature or high pressure, or both
What is Metamorphism?
The Solid-State transformation, within the earth of preexisting rocks into distinct new rocks by high temperature or high pressure, or both
What is an example of metamaorpic rock?
Limestone formed from calcite grains is metamorphized into MARBLE.
Describe Temperature.
Temperature increases with depth of the crust.
Describe Pressure
Pressure increases with depth of the crust due to the weight of overlying rocks.
What is the average Geobaric gradient?
280 bars
What effect does temperature have on substances?
Temperature expands substances; weakens bonds-causing some to break and to form new minerals; speeds up chemical reactions.
What effect does Pressure have on substances?
Compresses rocks and minerals-forcing their ions together. EX: Graphite into Diamond
What are the two types of Pressure?
1. Confining Pressure-applied equally (hydrostatic)
2. Directed Pressure-applied unequally (dynamic)
What are the two types of Pressure?
1. Confining Pressure-applied equally (hydrostatic) Compresses
2. Directed Pressure-applied unequally (dynamic) Distorts
What is Foliation?
named given to parrallel alignment of flattened grains. EX: Mudstone into Slate
What is slate?
A fine grained metamorphic rock that splits easily along flat, parallel planes.
What is Schist?
Course grained minerals
What is Gneiss?
Dark and Light colored layers or lenses.
What are the two Metoamorphic Reactions?
Isochemical-crystal of parent mineral changes but chemical stays the same.
Non-Isochemical-both chemical and crystal mineral change
What are polymorphs?
Minerals that have the same chemical but different crystal structures.
Why is water important in metamorphic process?
A.Combines with parent to form new minerals.
B.Dissovles ions of one mineral and carries them to another thus forming a new mineral.
What are the three types of metamorphism?
1.Contact (Thermal) low pressure, high temperatures
2.Regional (Dynamothermal) High pressure and temp.
3.Dynamic-low temp. high pressure
What are Hornfells?
A medium or fine-grained unfolilated metamorphic rock.
What is Metamorphic Grade?
A measure of the relative intensity of metamorphism.
What is Metamorphic Grade?
A measure of the relative intensity of metamorphism.
What is Migmatite?
A mixture of igneous and high grade metamorphic rock.
How much water do the oceans contain?
97.2%
How is water distributed on land?
77% icecaps and glaciers and 22% on ground
How is water distributed on land?
77% icecaps and glaciers and 22% on ground and 1% lakes and rivers
What happens in the hydrologic cycle?
When it rains or snows more than 1/2 of the water returns rapidly to the atmosphere through evaporation. The rest flows over the land surface as in streams or becomes groundwater.
What is Porosity?
The percentage of a rock's volume that consists of pore space.
What is permeability?
The capacity of a rock to transmit a fluid such as water or petroleum.
What is permeability?
The capacity of a rock to transmit a fluid such as water or petroleum. Measures the relative ease of water flow
What is permeable rock and Impermeable rock?
Permeable- rock that allows water to flow easily.
Impermeable-rock that doesn't allow water to flow easily.
What is Unsaturated zone and Saturated zone?
Unsaturated-openings partly filled with air and partly filled with water.
Saturated-openings filled with water.
What is the Water Table?
Boundary surface between teh saturated and unsatuared zones.
What is the Water Table?
Boundary surface between teh saturated and unsatuared zones. Controlled by topography-paralles the land surface.
How is ground water controlled?
Hydraulic Gradient-slope of the water table. Y/X (graph)
How is ground water controlled?
Hydraulic Gradient-slope of the water table. Y/X (graph) = D/L
What is a Aquifer?
A body of sturated rock or sediment where water moves easily. Ex: Sandstone, Conglomerate
What is Aquitards?
A sediment/rock in which water cannot move easily.
What is Aquitards?
A sediment/rock in which water cannot move easily. Ex:Shlaes, Unfractured Igenous
What is an Artesian Well?
A well that water rises naturally above the level of aquifer without pumping.
What is a Drawdown?
The local lowering of the water table. Only occurs in pumped wells.
What are the three ways that rocks respond to pressure?
1.Folding/Bending
2.Faulting/Fracturing
3.Internal Deformation/Flow
What is force and how do you find it?
An action exerted by one body on another.
F=mass X accerlation
What is stress? How do you find it?
Force acting upon the surface aka Pressure
Force/Area
What are 2 facts about stress?
1.Larger the force , larger the stress.
2. Larger the surface area, smaller the sress
What are 2 facts about stress?
1.Larger the force , larger the stress.
2. Larger the surface area, smaller the sress.
Ex:iF 170pd man skates over 2 sq in. 170/2 =85
What are 4 types of stress?
Compressional- squeezed toward each other.
Tensional-Pulled apart
Shear-parallel
Hydrostatic-equally applied
What is Strain?
Change in size, shape or body from stress.
What are two types of Strain?
1.Dilation-volume change
2.Distortion-shape change
How do you find Longitudinal Strain?
new -old
--------
old
What is elastic deformation?
bouncs back to shape
What is plastic deformation?
doesn't bounce back to shape.
What is brittle deformation?
breaks or fractures
What is elastic deformation?
bounces back to shape
What is plastic deformation?
Doesn't bounce back to shape
Ex: Folded rock layers
What is brittle deformation?
Fractures or breaks
Ex: Faults
What is Lithosphere?
rigid outer shell of earth; 100km thick
Ex: American, Pacific, Australia)
What is a Strike?
compass orientation of any horizantal line
What is Dip-direction?
the direction of the greatest slope; perpedicular to Strike
What is Angle of Dip?
angle measured downward in an veritcal plane through the dip direction. Horizantal to inclined plane.
What is a fault?
A fracture in bed rock
What is Hanging bed rock?
Above the surface
What is Hanging Wall Block?
Above the surface
What is Foot Wall Block?
Below the surface
What are 3 types of faults?
1.Normal-fault moves downwards (extenstonal) YOUNGER on OLDER Ex: East African Rift Valley
2. Reverse- fault moves upwards- OLDER on YOUNGER
3. Strike Slip-parallel/horizantal
What is Anti-Form?
Fold closes Upwards
What is Synform?
Fold closes downwards
What are Isotopes?
Different # of Neutrons
What is Stable and Unstable?
Stable-do not change
Unstable-Do change
What is Alpha Decay?
Mass # is minus 4
Atomic # is minus 2
Ex: Uranuim to Thorium
What is Beta Decay?
Electron; Atomic # increases by 1
Robidium to Strontium
What is Beta Decay?
Electron; Atomic # increases by 1
Ex: Robidium to Strontium
What is Series Decay?
Daughter and Parent are unstable
Ex:Uranium to Common Lead
What is Half-Life
2
4
8
16
32
What is Radioactive Decay?
Expotentional Decay
How many Half-life years does Carbon 14 have?
5730
Isotopic Dating in Igneous Rocks is..
Age of Crystalization
Isotopic Data with Metamorphic rocks is..
Age of when last morphized.
What is the Principle of Original Horizontality?
sediments in water form as horizontal layers.
What is the Principle of Superposition?
Undisturbed sedimentary rocks, older layers on bottom, younger layers on top
What is the principle of Lateral Continuity?
sedimentary layer deposited, extends horizontally until thin and disappears.
What is teh Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships?
A rock that cuts across another layer must be younger than that layer.
What is the Principle of Inclusions?
A rock that has fragments from another rock must be younger than those fragments.
What is an Unconformity?
A break in geological record
What is Disconformity?
Parallel to beds above and below
What is Angular Unconformity?
younger strata overlie on a tilted of folded layered rock
What is Nonconformity?
Plutonic or Metamorphic rock has been covered by YOUNGER Sedmentary rcok.