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177 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What time period covers the greatest expanse of time?
Precambrian
"The present is the key to the past." This statement relates to:
uniformatarianism
Catastrophism:
(definition)
is a modern term used to describe earthquakes and volcanic activity
Who was the Anglican archbishop who, in the mid-seventeenth century, used biblical interpretation to determine that the earth was created in 4004 B.C.?
Ussher
The forces and processes that can be observed shaping our present day landscapes have also operated in the geologic past. The preceding statement refers to:
uniformitarianism
The eleven editions of Principles of Geology by ______ did much to advance modern geology.
Charles Lyell
By applying the law of superposition _____ dates can be determined:
relative
The era of "recent life" is the ______
Cenozoic
About 85% of geologic time represented by the time span called the:
Precambrian
The age of the earth is about:
4.6 billion years
When a beta particle is emitted during radioactive decay:
the atomic number increases by 1
If a radioactive isotope emits 6 alpha particles and 4 beta particles during the course of radioactive decay, what is the atomic number and mass number of the stable daughter product?
atomic number 82, mass number 256
Abundant fossil evidence did not appear in the geologic record until about:
600 million years ago
An uncomformity is:
a gap in the rock record
Fossils which denote particular short periods of time in the geologic past are termed:
index fossils
In order to match rocks of simiilar age what must geologists use?
fossils, sequence of beds, and simiilarity of rock type
What is the order of geologic time from longest to shortest divisions?
era, period, epoch
About what fraction of geologic time is represented by recorded history?
1/1,000,000
One type of radioactive decay involves the capture of an electron by a nucleus. When this occurs:
the atomic number decreases by 1
When 3/4 of a radioactive isotope has decayed to become the stable daughter product, ________ half-lives have occurred.
four
What three processes are related to relative dating?
cross-cutting, inclusions, and superposition
When titled or folded sedimentary rocks are overlain by more flat-lying strata a _________ is said to exist.
angular unconformity
A layer of sandstone is in contact with a mass of granite. The granite contains small pieces of the sandstone. What rock is older?
sandstone
Who was credited with formulating the law of superposition?
Nicolaus Steno
A worm would stand a poor chance of being fossilized because:
worms have no hard parts
Insects are sometimes perserved in the hardened resin of ancient trees. This is called:
amber
The era known as the "age of flowering plants" is the:
Paleozoic
What era is called the "age of dinosaurs"?
Mesozoic
Mammals became the dominant land animals during the _____ era.
Cenozoic
By the _____ period, tropical coal swamps existed.
Pennsylvanian
The _____ period is sometimes called the "golden age of the trilobites."
Cambrian
What period is known as the "age of fishes"?
Devonian
The _____ period was a time of major extinctions including 75% of amphibian families.
Permian
True or False: The geologic time scale was originally constructed by scientests without the aid of absolute dates.
True
True or False: We are now living in the Mesozoic era.
False
The Precambrian accounts for slightly less than one-half of all geologic time.
False
Probably the single most characteristic feature of the Precambrian is its great abundance of fossil evidence.
False
Charles Lyell was an important proponent (someone who is FOR) catastrophism
False
The doctrine of uniformitarianism implies that the earth was created less than 10,000 years ago.
false
The law of superposition is used in relative dating.
True
The era of "middle life" was the Mesozoic era.
True
Of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic, the Mesozoic represents the greatest expanse of time.
False
_________ dating occurs when events are placed in their proper sequence or order without knowing their absolute ages.
relative
The remains or traces of prehistoric life are called ________.
fossils
The principle of ______ _________ states that fossile organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order and that any time period can be recognized by its fossil content.
faunal succession
Eras are divided into ____, which can be further divided into ______.
periods, epochs
We now live in the ______ era.
Cenozoic
The span of time prior to the beginning of the Paleozoic era is termed the ________.
precambrian
List three types of radioactive decay.
alpha, beta, electron
The time required for one-half of the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay is termed _____.
half-life
"This dike is 10 million years old," is a statement that relates to:
absolute dating.
Layers of sedimentary rock are said to be _________ when they are found to have been deposited without interruption.
conformable
Atolls may be described as:
coral reefs surrounding a lagoon
Submarine canyons found on the continental slope and rise are believed to have been created: (3 types)
-by rivers during the ice age
-by faulting
-because of a plate plunging into the mantle
Graded bedding is characterized by:
a decrease in sediment size from bottom to top
What is a continental shelf?
a rapid steepening of the gradient
Seamounts:
are volcanoes that form on the ocean floor
The scientist who correctly proposed the theory of atoll formation was:
Darwin
Calcareous ooze is an example of:
biogenous sediment
Sediments derived primarily from the products of weathering on the continents are called:
lithogenous sediment
Manganese nodules are an example of:
hydrogenous
Minerals that crystallize directly from seawater are examples of:
hydrogenous sediment
The gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline toward the deep ocean is termed:
continental shelf
Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region known as:
continental slope
Within the continental margin, deep, steep-sided valleys known as ____ are found.
submarine canyons
Most available information favors the view that submarine canyons on the continental slope have been generated:
by turbidity currents
Charles Darwin was the first to explain how reef-building organisms which require shallow, sunlit water could create reef complexes that extend for thousands of meters below sea level. Darwin hypothesized that:
as volcanic islands with coral reefs began to sink, these organisms kept pace by building the reef complex upward.
The crests of mid-oceanic ridges:
contain active rift zones
One of the deep-diving manned submersibles that has been used to photograph mid-ocean ridges is the:
Alvin
The discovery of black smokers at the ocean ridges was important because these features help explain how important ______ deposits form.
metal-rich sulfide
The development of what instrument greatly enhanced our knowledge of the ocean floor?
echo sounder
The oceans cover approximately ______ percent of the earth's surface.
70
The _____ Ocean is largest.
Pacific
Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
Pacific
35 0/00 is the same as ____ percent.
3.5
Which salt is the most abundant in seawater?
sodium chloride
Who wrote the first textbook on oceanography called The Physical Geography of the Sea.
Maury
The first and perhaps most comprehensive study of the ocean lasted from December, 1872 until May, 1876 and is known as the ____ expedition.
Challenger
Desalination is associated with:
the creation of fresh water
The Coriolis effect:
is caused by the earth's rotation
What water mass is most dense
cold water with high salinity
Water masses from the Arctic Ocean are a significant part of the deep ocean circulation of:
only the Atlantic Ocean
The most extensive mountain range on earth extends for about 65,000 kilometers on the ocean floor and is known as the ____ ____ _____.
mid-ocean ridge
Flat-topped volcanic structures located on the floor of the ocean basin are termed _______.
guyots
The continental shelf, slope, and rise make up a unit called the continental _____.
margin
_______ sediment consists of shells and hard parts of marine organisms.
Biogenous
The proportion of dissolved salts to pure water is termed _______.
salinity
List two sources for salts in seawater.
chemical weathering on the continents and volcanic outgassing.
What do the components of a wave (height, length, and period) depend on what three factors?
-length of time wind has blown
-wind speed
-fetch (distance wind has moved across open water)
When are waves affected by the seafloor, that is, when do waves begin to "feel bottom"?
when water depth is equal to one-half the wave length.
When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This is called:
refraction
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed:
longshore current
When a breakwater is built beyond the surf zone offshore from a sandy beach:
the area between the shore and the breakwater will probably begin filling in with sand.
One result of wave refraction is that:
wave energy is concentrated on headlands projecting into the water.
The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach:
is caused by obliquely breaking waves
An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a:
sea stack
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a:
tombolo
Chesapeak Bay is an excellent example of a(n):
estuary
What structure is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?
breakwater
Over the past 100 years, sea level:
has been gradually rising.
Over the next 100 years, it is predicted that the temperature of the lower atmosphere will ________ and cause the sea level to ________.
rise, rise
The world's first tidal power station to produce electricity was built in:
France
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as Gulf Stream comes from:
prevailing winds
What do the components of a wave (height, length, and period) depend on what three factors?
-length of time wind has blown
-wind speed
-fetch (distance wind has moved across open water)
When are waves affected by the seafloor, that is, when do waves begin to "feel bottom"?
when water depth is equal to one-half the wave length.
When waves reach shallow water, they are often bent and tend to become parallel to the shore. This is called:
refraction
The movement of water within the surf zone that parallels the shore is termed:
longshore current
When a breakwater is built beyond the surf zone offshore from a sandy beach:
the area between the shore and the breakwater will probably begin filling in with sand.
One result of wave refraction is that:
wave energy is concentrated on headlands projecting into the water.
The zigzag movement of sand grains along a beach:
is caused by obliquely breaking waves
An isolated remnant of wave erosion is a:
sea stack
A sand ridge connecting an island to the mainland or to another island is a:
tombolo
Chesapeak Bay is an excellent example of a(n):
estuary
What structure is built to protect boats from large breaking waves?
breakwater
Over the past 100 years, sea level:
has been gradually rising.
Over the next 100 years, it is predicted that the temperature of the lower atmosphere will ________ and cause the sea level to ________.
rise, rise
The world's first tidal power station to produce electricity was built in:
France
The energy that drives surface ocean currents such as Gulf Stream comes from:
prevailing winds
A poleward-moving ocean current is: (warm vs. cold)
warm
An equatorward-moving ocean current is: (warm vs. cold)
cold
Climatic influences associated with cold currents include: (two things)
increased aridity and greater fog frequency
The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _____ tide.
spring
The daily tidal range is LEAST during ______ tide.
neap
When there are two high tides and two low tides each tidal day, the pattern is:
semidiurnal
When there is a single high tide and a single low tide each tidal day, the pattern is described as:
diurnal
True or False: The horizontal distance seperating successive wave crest is called the wave period.
False
True or False: Tidal flats are submerged during ebb tide.
False
True or False: When a wave breaks it becomes a wave of translation.
True
True or False: The addition of sand to a beach has proven to be an economical solution to beach erosion problems.
False
True or False: Waves in the open ocean are called waves of oscillation.
True
True or False: The Gulf Coast lacks barrier islands.
False
True or False: Groins are constructed for the purpose of maintaining widening beaches that are losing sand.
True
True or False: Barrier islands are more common along the Pacific Coast in the United States than along the Atlantic Coast
False
True or False: Neap tides occur about the time of the first quarter and third quarter phases of the moon.
True
True or False: Low and narrow offshore ridges of sand that parallel the coast are called _______ ________.
barrier islands
Structures called __________ are built parallel to the shoreline to protect boats from the force of large breaking waves.
breakwaters
____ ______ is the term used to denote the horizontal flow of water accompanying the rise and fall of the tide.
tidal current
The opposite of ebb tide is ____ tide.
flood
When caves on opposite sides of a headland unite, a ___ _____ results.
sea arch
The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called _______.
upwelling
Because deep ocean circulation is driven largely by variations in water temperature and salinity, it is all called _______ circulation.
thermohaline
In the Ptolemaic or Greek model of the universe, how many "heavenly" bodies wandered along the background of stars?
seven
The belt of constellations through which all the planets move is called the:
Zodiac
Name 4 discoveries of Galileo.
-sunspots
-phases of Venus
-Jupter's four largest moons
-the mountains and "seas" on the moon
Who wrote the book entitled "Of the Revolutions of Celestial Spheres"?
Nicolaus Copernicus
Who wrote the "Dialogue of the Great World Systems" which compared the earth centered system with the sun-centered one?
Galileo
This astronomer is credited with opening the door to the era of modern astronomy:
Nicolaus Copernicus
This scientist's discovery was used to predict the next coming of Halley's Comet. (what scientist?)
Sir Isaac Newton
We currently use the Julian or Gregorian Calendar?
Gregorian
The apparent path of the sun upon the celestial sphere is called the:
ecliptic
In the Greek or Ptolemaic model of the universe the stars are attached to the:
celestial sphere
True or False: The days of the week are named after the five planets visible to the unaided eye and the sun and moon.
True
The belief that the "heavenly bodies" affect life on earth is the basis of _______.
astrology
The planets stay in borbit around the sun because of a balance between ______ and _________________.
gravity and motion-orientation
The angular distance north or south of the celestial equator is called __________.
declination
The ______ ________ is at the point in the sky where the sun crosses the celestial equator at the onset of spring.
vernal equinox
The layer of the sun which radiates most of the light that reaches the earth is called the:
photosphere
The layer of the solar atmosphere directly above the photosphere is called the:
chromosphere
The outermost layer of the sun is called the:
corona
The most explosive events to occur on the sun are:
solar flares
The moon's surface contains rock formed of angular fragments and dust that were welded together by meteoroid impact. This rock is called:
lunar breccia
What lunar feature is probably the oldest?
lunar highlands
The Apennine mountains like many other mountains on the moon:
are huge piles of debris ejected in conjunction with the formation of the maria basins.
The amount of energy released during a nuclear reaction was established by:
Albert Einstein
Streams of protons and electrons emitted from the sun produce(s):
the solar wind
The study of spectroscopy was begun by:
Sir Isaac Newton
True or False: It takes about 27 1/3 days for the moon to go around the earth which is the time required to complete the phases of the moon.
False
True or False: Galileo built the first known telescope.
False
True or False:Sir Isaac Newton built and used reflecting telescopes.
True
True or False: Astronomers are most interested in the magnifying power of their telescopes.
False
The process of converting hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei is called the ____ _____ ______.
proton-proton chain
What do the names Tycho and COpernicus refer to when applied to the moon?
Craters
The time required for the moon to go around the earth is called the _______ month.
sidereal
The moon's surface is mantled with a layer of gray unconsolidated debris called ______ _______.
lunar regolith
Light can be described as a stream of fast-moving particles called _______.
photons
Lis tthe three powers of telescopes that are important to astronomers.
magnifying, resolving, and light-gathering
When several radio telescopes are connected together, the resulting netwoek is called ______ ______________.
radio interferometer